Appraisal Procedure

Appraisal Procedure
Appraisal Procedure
Quick Summary of Appraisal Procedure

Appraisal procedure refers to the formal process of determining the value of a property or asset. It involves the assessment and evaluation of various factors such as market conditions, physical condition, location, and comparable sales data. The purpose of an appraisal procedure is to provide an unbiased and objective opinion of the property’s worth, which is crucial in various legal and financial transactions.

During the appraisal procedure, a qualified appraiser conducts a thorough inspection of the property and collects relevant data. This may include reviewing documents, conducting research, and analyzing market trends. The appraiser then applies appropriate valuation methods and techniques to determine the property’s fair market value.

Appraisal procedures are commonly required in real estate transactions, mortgage lending, insurance claims, tax assessments, and legal disputes. The results of an appraisal procedure can significantly impact the outcome of these transactions and may be used as evidence in court proceedings.

It is important to note that the appraisal procedure must adhere to professional standards and guidelines set by regulatory bodies, such as the Appraisal Foundation in the United States. These standards ensure that the appraisal is conducted in an unbiased and ethical manner, providing accurate and reliable valuation results.

In conclusion, the appraisal procedure is a formal process used to determine the value of a property or asset. It involves the assessment of various factors and follows professional standards to provide an unbiased and objective opinion of the property’s worth.

What is the dictionary definition of Appraisal Procedure?
Dictionary Definition of Appraisal Procedure

Appraisal Procedure:


  1. A systematic and structured process used to evaluate and determine the value, worth, or quality of a particular item, property, or performance.
  2. Typically conducted by a qualified professional, an appraisal procedure involves the examination, analysis, and assessment of various factors, such as condition, market trends, comparable sales, and relevant data, to establish an accurate and unbiased appraisal value.
  3. Appraisal procedures are commonly employed in various fields, including real estate, insurance, finance, art, antiques, and employee performance evaluations, to provide an objective and reliable estimation of the subject’s value or performance.
  4. The appraisal procedure often includes site visits, research, data collection, analysis, and the application of established appraisal methods and techniques to arrive at a fair and justifiable appraisal value.
  5. The results of an appraisal procedure are typically documented in a formal appraisal report, which outlines the methodology used, the factors considered, and the final appraisal value, providing a comprehensive and transparent record of the appraisal process.
Full Definition Of Appraisal Procedure

The appraisal procedure is a crucial legal mechanism often employed in corporate law to resolve disputes concerning the valuation of shares in the event of mergers, acquisitions, or other significant corporate actions. This process is particularly relevant when shareholders dissent from a proposed transaction, and it provides a formal method for determining the fair value of their shares. This overview will explore the legal foundations, procedural steps, and implications of the appraisal procedure within the context of British law.

Legal Foundations

The appraisal procedure in British law is primarily governed by the Companies Act 2006. This legislation sets out the rights and protections afforded to shareholders, including those who dissent from major corporate decisions. The act provides a framework for the fair treatment of minority shareholders, ensuring that they receive appropriate compensation when their shares are compulsorily acquired or when they disagree with certain corporate actions.

Companies Act 2006

Under the Companies Act 2006, specifically sections 979 to 985, the appraisal rights of shareholders are addressed. These sections provide a statutory basis for shareholders to challenge the terms of a merger, acquisition, or similar transaction. The key provisions include:

  • Right to Object: Shareholders have the right to object to a proposed transaction. This objection must be made in accordance with the procedures outlined in the company’s articles of association or as specified by law.
  • Demand for Fair Value: Dissenting shareholders can demand that their shares be bought out at a fair value, which is determined through an appraisal process. This ensures that shareholders are compensated adequately and fairly.
  • Court Involvement: If there is a disagreement over the valuation of the shares, either party can apply to the court to determine the fair value. The court’s decision is binding on both parties.

Procedural Steps

The appraisal procedure involves several key steps, each designed to ensure a fair and transparent process. These steps include notification, objection, valuation, and, if necessary, court intervention.


The first step in the appraisal procedure is the notification of shareholders. When a company proposes a significant transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, it must notify all shareholders of the terms and conditions of the transaction. This notification must include the following:

  • Details of the Transaction: A comprehensive description of the proposed transaction, including the rationale, terms, and expected outcomes.
  • Rights of Shareholders: Information about the rights of shareholders, including their right to dissent and seek an appraisal of their shares.
  • Procedural Guidelines: Clear instructions on how shareholders can object to the transaction and initiate the appraisal process.


Shareholders who wish to dissent from the proposed transaction must formally object within a specified time frame. This objection must be made in writing and submitted to the company. The objection should include:

  • Statement of Intent: A clear statement indicating the shareholder’s intention to dissent from the transaction and seek an appraisal of their shares.
  • Details of Shares: Information about the number of shares held by the dissenting shareholder and any other relevant details.

The company must acknowledge receipt of the objection and inform the shareholder of the next steps in the appraisal process.


The core of the appraisal procedure is the determination of the fair value of the dissenting shareholder’s shares. This involves a thorough valuation process, which may include:

  • Independent Valuation: The company may engage an independent valuer to assess the fair value of the shares. This valuation should be conducted impartially and based on objective criteria.
  • Negotiation: The company and the dissenting shareholder may negotiate to reach an agreement on the fair value of the shares. If an agreement is reached, the company must pay the agreed-upon amount to the shareholder.
  • Court Determination: If the parties cannot agree on the fair value, either party may apply to the court for a determination. The court will consider various factors, including the market value of the shares, the company’s financial performance, and any other relevant considerations.

Court Intervention

In cases where the valuation of shares cannot be agreed upon, the court plays a critical role in the appraisal procedure. The court’s involvement ensures that the process is fair and transparent. Key aspects of court intervention include:

  • Application to the Court: Either the company or the dissenting shareholder can apply to the court for a determination of the fair value of the shares. This application must be made within a specified time frame, usually within a few months of the initial objection.
  • Evidence and Submissions: Both parties will have the opportunity to present evidence and make submissions to the court. This may include expert testimony, financial reports, and other relevant documents.
  • Court Decision: The court will review the evidence and determine the fair value of the shares. The court’s decision is binding on both parties, and the company must pay the determined amount to the dissenting shareholder.

Implications of the Appraisal Procedure

The appraisal procedure has significant implications for both companies and shareholders. It provides a legal safeguard for minority shareholders, ensuring that they are treated fairly in major corporate transactions. However, it also imposes certain obligations and potential liabilities on companies.

Shareholder Protections

For shareholders, the appraisal procedure offers several important protections:

  • Fair Compensation: Dissenting shareholders are entitled to receive fair compensation for their shares. This ensures that they are not disadvantaged by a transaction that they disagree with.
  • Transparency: The appraisal process promotes transparency by requiring companies to disclose relevant information and engage in fair negotiations.
  • Legal Recourse: Shareholders have the right to seek legal recourse if they believe that the valuation of their shares is unfair. The involvement of the court provides an additional layer of protection.

Corporate Obligations

For companies, the appraisal procedure imposes certain obligations and potential challenges:

  • Financial Impact: Companies may face significant financial liabilities if they are required to buy out dissenting shareholders at a higher valuation determined by the court. This can impact the company’s financial stability and future planning.
  • Administrative Burden: The appraisal process can be administratively burdensome, requiring companies to engage valuers, negotiate with shareholders, and potentially participate in court proceedings.
  • Reputation: The way a company handles the appraisal process can impact its reputation. Fair and transparent handling of dissenting shareholders can enhance the company’s reputation, while perceived unfairness can damage it.

Case Studies and Precedents

To better understand the application and implications of the appraisal procedure, it is helpful to examine relevant case studies and legal precedents. Several landmark cases have shaped the interpretation and implementation of appraisal rights in British law.

Re Bluebrook Ltd [2009]

In the case of Re Bluebrook Ltd [2009] EWHC 2114 (Ch), the High Court addressed the issue of fair value in the context of a company in financial distress. The court emphasised the importance of considering the company’s financial condition and market conditions when determining the fair value of shares. This case highlighted the need for a comprehensive and context-specific approach to valuation.

In re Dee Valley Group plc [2017]

The case of In re Dee Valley Group plc [2017] EWHC 184 (Ch) involved a dispute over the valuation of shares in the context of a takeover. The court considered various factors, including the market value of the shares, the terms of the takeover offer, and the interests of minority shareholders. This case reinforced the principle that fair value determination must be based on a holistic assessment of relevant factors.


The appraisal procedure is a vital legal mechanism that protects the rights of dissenting shareholders in the context of major corporate transactions. Governed by the Companies Act 2006, this procedure ensures that shareholders receive fair compensation for their shares and provides a structured process for resolving disputes over valuation. While the appraisal procedure imposes certain obligations and challenges on companies, it plays a crucial role in promoting transparency, fairness, and shareholder protection in corporate governance.

By understanding the legal foundations, procedural steps, and implications of the appraisal procedure, both companies and shareholders can navigate this complex area of law with greater confidence and clarity. As the corporate landscape continues to evolve, the appraisal procedure will remain a fundamental aspect of ensuring fair and equitable treatment for all stakeholders involved in significant corporate actions.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th June 2024.

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