Executor de Son Tort

Executor de Son Tort
Executor de Son Tort
Full Overview Of Executor de Son Tort

In probate law, the concept of an “executor de son tort” holds a significant, albeit often misunderstood, place. Derived from the French term meaning “executor of his own wrong,” an executor de son tort refers to an individual who, without legal authority, intermeddles with the estate of a deceased person. This intermeddling can lead to severe legal consequences, including personal liability for any loss or damage caused to the estate. At DLS Solicitors, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of this complex legal position, its implications, and the protections available to those involved in estate administration.

What is a Executor de Son Tort?

An executor de son tort arises when a person, without proper appointment or legal authority, takes actions that amount to administration of a deceased person’s estate. This could include collecting assets, paying debts, or distributing the estate to beneficiaries. Unlike an officially appointed executor or administrator, an executor de son tort assumes these responsibilities without the backing of a grant of probate or letters of administration.

The law recognises an executor de son tort because of the principle that individuals should not interfere with an estate unless duly authorised. Such interference can disrupt the proper administration of the estate, potentially disadvantaging rightful beneficiaries and creditors. Therefore, the legal system imposes personal liability on those who overstep their bounds.

The primary consequence for an executor de son tort is personal liability for any mismanagement or loss incurred by the estate. This liability extends to both the beneficiaries and creditors of the estate. The key areas where an executor de son tort might find themselves liable include:

  1. Estate Debts and Obligations: An executor de son tort can be held personally liable for the estate’s debts and obligations. If they pay beneficiaries before settling debts, creditors may pursue the executor de son tort personally to recover what is owed.
  2. Wrongful Distribution: Distributing the estate’s assets without proper authority or in a manner inconsistent with the deceased’s will or the rules of intestacy can lead to personal liability. Beneficiaries or rightful heirs can sue the executor de son tort for any losses due to improper distribution.
  3. Negligence and Mismanagement: An executor de son tort is expected to exercise the same care and diligence as a duly appointed executor. Failure to do so can result in personal liability for any resulting loss or damage to the estate.
  4. Intermeddling: Simply intermeddling with the estate can trigger liability. This can include actions such as collecting rents, selling assets, or paying bills without proper authority. The courts may deem such actions as acceptance of the role of executor, thus imposing the corresponding liabilities.

Several legal precedents illustrate the executor de son tort principle and its implications. Notable cases include:

  1. Williams v. Heales (1856): In this case, the court held that a person who took possession of the deceased’s goods and paid some of the debts without proper authority was liable as an executor de son tort. This case underscores the principle that unauthorised intermeddling can result in personal liability.
  2. Marshall v. Cottingham (1860): This case highlighted the liability of an executor de son tort who distributed the estate’s assets without settling outstanding debts. The court ruled that the executor de son tort was personally liable to the creditors.
  3. Re Stevens (1898): In this case, the court considered the actions of an individual who had acted as an executor de son tort by selling the deceased’s property and distributing the proceeds. The court imposed personal liability for the improper distribution and for failing to settle the estate’s debts.

Avoiding the Role of Executor de Son Tort

To avoid being deemed an executor de son tort, it is crucial to understand what constitutes intermeddling and to act accordingly. Here are some practical steps:

  1. Avoid Taking Control of Assets: Refrain from collecting, selling, or distributing the deceased’s assets unless you are duly authorised by a grant of probate or letters of administration.
  2. Consult a Solicitor: If you find yourself in a situation where you need to handle the deceased’s affairs, consult a solicitor to ensure that your actions are legally compliant and do not inadvertently place you in the role of executor de son tort.
  3. Apply for Proper Authority: If you believe you are entitled to act as the executor or administrator, apply for the necessary legal authority through probate court. This will protect you from personal liability and ensure the proper administration of the estate.
  4. Maintain Transparency: Keep clear records of any actions taken concerning the deceased’s estate and ensure that all interested parties are informed. Transparency can help demonstrate that you are not attempting to administer the estate unlawfully.

Protection for Executors de Son Tort

While the law imposes strict liabilities on an executor de son tort, there are certain protections and defences available:

  1. Reimbursement for Necessary Expenses: An executor de son tort can claim reimbursement from the estate for necessary expenses incurred in preserving or protecting the estate’s assets. This is contingent upon proving that the expenses were reasonable and beneficial to the estate.
  2. Limitation Periods: Claims against an executor de son tort are subject to statutory limitation periods. If the claim is brought outside these periods, the executor de son tort may have a defence against liability.
  3. Good Faith: Acting in good faith and with the honest belief that you were entitled to act can sometimes mitigate liability. However, this defence is limited and does not absolve an executor de son tort from responsibility for losses caused by their actions.
  4. Court Applications: An executor de son tort can apply to the court for directions or formal appointment as an administrator if they believe their actions were necessary and justified. The court may grant retrospective authority, thus regularising their position.


The role of executor de son tort serves as a cautionary principle in probate law, emphasising the importance of proper legal authority in estate administration. While the legal system provides mechanisms for addressing the actions of an executor de son tort, the potential for personal liability highlights the need for careful and informed handling of a deceased person’s estate.

At DLS Solicitors, we understand the complexities and nuances of probate law. We are committed to guiding our clients through the legal landscape, ensuring they avoid the pitfalls associated with unauthorised intermeddling and effectively protect their interests. Whether you are dealing with an estate or seeking to understand your legal position, our team of experienced solicitors is here to provide the expertise and support you need.

By adhering to the principles of lawful estate administration and seeking appropriate legal advice, individuals can confidently navigate the probate process, avoiding the unintended consequences of becoming an executor de son tort. Through careful planning and diligent execution, the rights of beneficiaries and creditors can be safeguarded, ensuring that the deceased’s wishes are honoured and their estate is managed efficiently and fairly.

In conclusion, the concept of executor de son tort is a vital reminder of the responsibilities and risks involved in estate administration. By understanding and respecting the legal requirements, individuals can ensure that they act within the law’s bounds, protecting themselves and the estate from unnecessary complications and liabilities.

Executor de Son Tort FAQ'S

An Executor de Son Tort is a person who intermeddles with the estate of a deceased person without having been appointed as the executor or administrator. This individual assumes the role of an executor through their actions.

A person becomes an Executor de Son Tort by carrying out acts that are typically within the duties of an executor or administrator, such as distributing assets, paying debts, or selling property from the deceased’s estate without proper authority.

Acting as an Executor de Son Tort can lead to personal liability for any losses incurred by the estate due to their actions. They can also be held responsible for fulfilling the deceased’s debts and obligations.

Yes, an Executor de Son Tort can be sued by beneficiaries, creditors, or the rightful executor or administrator of the estate for any improper actions or mismanagement of the estate.

No, an Executor de Son Tort is not entitled to any remuneration for their services. They are acting without legal authority and, therefore, cannot claim any executor’s fees.

An Executor de Son Tort can mitigate their liability by promptly ceasing their intermeddling actions, cooperating with the rightful executor or administrator, and providing a full account of their activities related to the estate.

To avoid becoming an Executor de Son Tort, one should refrain from handling the deceased’s assets, paying off debts, making distributions to beneficiaries, or taking any actions that are typically the responsibility of an appointed executor or administrator.

It is possible for an Executor de Son Tort to later be appointed as the official executor if they apply for and are granted probate by the court. However, their prior actions may still be scrutinised.

An Executor de Son Tort acts without legal authority and without being formally appointed by the court, whereas a de facto executor is someone who acts in the capacity of an executor based on informal appointment but may not have completed the legal process of obtaining probate.

Beneficiaries should seek legal advice immediately. They may need to apply to the court for the appointment of a proper executor or administrator and take action against the Executor de Son Tort to recover any mismanaged assets or losses to the estate.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 17th July 2024.

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Our team of professionals are based in Alderley Edge, Cheshire. We offer clear, specialist legal advice in all matters relating to Family Law, Wills, Trusts, Probate, Lasting Power of Attorney and Court of Protection.

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