Family Limited Partnership

Family Limited Partnership
Family Limited Partnership
Full Overview Of Family Limited Partnership

A family limited partnership (FLP) is a legal arrangement commonly used for estate planning and asset protection. This structure allows families to effectively manage and control their wealth while also providing a way to transfer assets to future generations in a tax-efficient manner. This overview will explore the details of FLPs, including their benefits, structure, legal considerations, and practical applications.

Definition and Structure of an FLP

An FLP is a type of partnership where family members collectively own and manage assets. A partnership is typically composed of two types of partners: general partners and limited partners.

General Partners

General partners (GPs) in an FLP have the authority to manage the partnership and make decisions regarding its assets. They hold a controlling interest and bear unlimited liability for the partnership’s debts and obligations. Often, the parents or senior family members act as the general partners, thereby retaining control over the family’s assets.

Limited Partners

Limited partners (LPs), on the other hand, have no management authority, and their liability is restricted to the extent of their investment in the FLP. They receive shares of the partnership, which can be transferred to other family members, typically the next generation, as part of an estate planning strategy. Limited partners usually include children, grandchildren, or other family members who are intended to benefit from the family’s wealth in the future.

Formation of a Family Limited Partnership

Forming an FLP involves several key steps, each requiring careful consideration and professional advice to ensure compliance with legal requirements and achieve the desired objectives.

Drafting the Partnership Agreement

The first step in forming an FLP is drafting a partnership agreement. This document outlines the terms and conditions of the partnership, including the roles and responsibilities of the general and limited partners, the distribution of profits and losses, and the procedures for transferring partnership interests. As the governing document for the FLP, this agreement must be comprehensive and tailored to the family’s specific needs.

Asset Transfer

Once the partnership agreement is in place, the next step is to transfer assets into the FLP. These assets can include real estate, investments, business interests, and other valuable properties. Transferring assets to the FLP is often done as a gift, which can have significant tax implications. It is advisable to consult with tax professionals to navigate these complexities and to take advantage of any available tax exemptions or discounts.

Registration and Compliance

After drafting the partnership agreement and transferring assets, the FLP must be registered with the relevant authorities. This process may involve filing specific forms and paying registration fees. Additionally, ongoing compliance with state and federal regulations is necessary to maintain the FLP’s legal standing. This includes keeping accurate records, filing annual reports, and adhering to any applicable tax requirements.

Benefits of a Family Limited Partnership

FLPs offer numerous advantages that make them attractive for families looking to manage and protect their wealth. Some of the primary benefits include:

Asset Protection

One of the most significant advantages of an FLP is asset protection. By placing assets into the FLP, they become owned by the partnership rather than by individual family members. This separation can shield the assets from creditors and legal claims against individual partners. Moreover, limited partners have no direct control over the assets, making it more difficult for creditors to seize them.

Estate Planning and Tax Efficiency

FLPs are a powerful tool for estate planning. They allow for the systematic transfer of wealth to future generations, often at a reduced tax cost. When assets are transferred into the FLP, they can be subject to valuation discounts due to a lack of marketability and control, which can significantly lower the taxable value of the estate. Additionally, FLPs enable the use of the annual gift tax exclusion and lifetime gift tax exemption, facilitating tax-efficient wealth transfer.

Control Retention

An FLP allows senior family members to retain control over the family’s assets while gradually transferring ownership to younger generations. As general partners, they can manage and make decisions regarding the assets, ensuring that the family’s financial interests and values are upheld. This control can be particularly important in maintaining the long-term vision and objectives of the family’s wealth.

Consolidation and Simplification

By consolidating various family assets into a single entity, an FLP can simplify the management and administration of the family’s wealth. This centralization can lead to more efficient investment strategies, streamlined record-keeping, and easier decision-making processes. It also provides a structured framework for involving multiple family members in the management of family assets.

While FLPs offer many benefits, they also come with specific legal considerations that must be carefully addressed to ensure their effectiveness and compliance with the law.

Compliance with Partnership Laws

FLPs are governed by partnership laws, which vary by jurisdiction. It is essential to ensure that the partnership agreement and operations comply with the relevant laws and regulations. This may involve consulting with legal professionals who specialise in partnership law and estate planning.

Fiduciary Duties and Conflicts of Interest

General partners have fiduciary duties to act in the best interests of the partnership, as do limited partners. This includes avoiding conflicts of interest and ensuring that all actions taken are in line with the partnership’s objectives. Failure to fulfil these duties can result in legal disputes and potential liability for the general partners.

Tax Implications

The tax implications of an FLP can be complex and require careful planning. It is important to understand how the partnership will be taxed at both the federal and state levels, as well as the implications for individual partners. Consulting with tax professionals is crucial to navigate these complexities and optimise the tax benefits of the FLP.

Valuation and Appraisal

The valuation of assets transferred into the FLP is a critical aspect of its formation and ongoing operation. Accurate valuations are necessary for tax reporting purposes and to determine the value of partnership interests. Engaging professional appraisers can ensure that valuations are conducted in compliance with tax regulations and reflect the true market value of the assets.

Practical Applications of Family Limited Partnerships

FLPs can be utilised in various ways to achieve specific family objectives. Here are some practical applications of FLPs:

Succession Planning for Family Businesses

For families with business interests, an FLP can facilitate the orderly transfer of ownership and management to the next generation. By transferring business interests to the FLP, the senior generation can retain control while gradually introducing younger family members to the management of the business. This can help ensure a smooth transition and continuity of the family business.

Real Estate Management

FLPs are often used to manage family-owned real estate. By placing properties into the partnership, families can centralise the management and oversight of their real estate portfolio. This can lead to more efficient property management, consolidated record-keeping, and simplified decision-making processes. Transferring real estate to an FLP can also provide tax benefits and asset protection.

Investment Strategies

Families with substantial investment portfolios can benefit from the centralised management and strategic planning offered by an FLP. The partnership structure allows for coordinated investment strategies, risk management, and the efficient allocation of resources. This can lead to enhanced returns and a more cohesive approach to managing the family’s wealth.

Philanthropic Endeavours

FLPs can also be used to support philanthropic activities. By allocating a portion of the partnership’s assets to charitable causes, families can create a structured approach to their philanthropic efforts. This can enhance the impact of their charitable contributions and align their philanthropic goals with their overall wealth management strategy.

Challenges and Limitations

While FLPs offer numerous benefits, they also come with certain challenges and limitations that must be considered.

Complexity and Costs

The formation and ongoing management of an FLP can be complex and costly. Legal and accounting fees, valuation expenses, and compliance costs can add up, making it important to weigh these expenses against the benefits of the partnership. Additionally, the complexity of FLPs may require the involvement of multiple professionals, including attorneys, accountants, and financial advisors.

Potential for Family Disputes

The involvement of multiple family members in the FLP can lead to conflicts and disputes. Differing opinions on management decisions, distribution of profits, and the overall direction of the partnership can create tensions within the family. Establishing clear governance structures and communication channels can help mitigate these risks and promote harmony among family members.

Regulatory Scrutiny

FLPs may be subject to scrutiny by tax authorities, particularly if they are used primarily for tax avoidance purposes. Ensuring that the FLP is established and operated for legitimate business purposes and in compliance with tax laws is crucial. Engaging tax professionals and maintaining thorough documentation can help defend the partnership against potential challenges from tax authorities.


A family limited partnership (FLP) is a highly versatile and powerful tool for managing and safeguarding family wealth. It provides numerous advantages, including asset protection, tax efficiency, and allowing senior family members to retain control. However, the establishment and operation of an FLP necessitate careful planning and consideration of legal, tax, and family dynamics.

At DLS Solicitors, we comprehend the complexities involved in setting up and managing family limited partnerships. Our team of experienced legal and tax professionals is available to lead you through every stage of the process, ensuring that your FLP is customised to meet your family’s distinct needs and objectives. Whether you seek to safeguard your assets, plan for the future, or streamline the management of your family’s wealth, we are here to assist you in realising your objectives with confidence and peace of mind.

In summary, while FLPs offer a resilient framework for family wealth management, their successful implementation hinges on meticulous planning, professional guidance, and a clear understanding of the family’s goals. By leveraging the expertise of DLS Solicitors, families can navigate the complexities of FLPs and secure their financial legacy for generations to come.

Family Limited Partnership FAQ'S

A Family Limited Partnership is a legal structure used by families to manage and control their assets, such as businesses or investments, while providing a means to transfer wealth to younger generations. It typically includes general partners who manage the partnership and limited partners who have ownership interests but no management control.

Benefits include centralised management of family assets, protection of assets from creditors, potential tax advantages, facilitating wealth transfer to future generations, and maintaining family control over business decisions.

An FLP has at least one general partner and one or more limited partners. The general partner(s) manage the partnership and have unlimited liability for its debts, while limited partners have limited liability but do not participate in management.

FLPs can offer tax advantages by allowing for the transfer of assets at a discounted value, potentially reducing inheritance tax liabilities. Income generated by the partnership can also be distributed among family members in lower tax brackets.

Partners in an FLP can include family members, family trusts, and other entities. Typically, senior family members act as general partners, while younger generations or trusts become limited partners.

To form an FLP, a partnership agreement must be drafted and signed by all partners. The partnership should be registered with the appropriate authorities, and any relevant taxes or duties must be paid.

Yes, an FLP can own property, investments, businesses, and other assets. These assets are managed by the general partners for the benefit of the partnership and its limited partners.

Decisions are typically made by the general partners, who have management control. The partnership agreement outlines the decision-making process and any required consent from limited partners for significant actions.

The partnership agreement should outline the process for a partner to exit the FLP, including any requirements for transferring their interest, buyout provisions, and how their share of the assets will be valued.

Yes, an FLP can be dissolved according to the terms set out in the partnership agreement or by mutual agreement of the partners. Upon dissolution, the assets are distributed according to the agreement, and any remaining liabilities are settled.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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Our team of professionals are based in Alderley Edge, Cheshire. We offer clear, specialist legal advice in all matters relating to Family Law, Wills, Trusts, Probate, Lasting Power of Attorney and Court of Protection.

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