Possession Proceedings

Possession Proceedings
Possession Proceedings
Full Overview Of Possession Proceedings

Possession proceedings are an integral part of property law, encompassing the legal process by which a landlord can regain possession of their property from tenants. These proceedings can be intricate, governed by myriad statutory requirements and procedural rules that landlords must adhere to meticulously. This overview aims to demystify the process, outlining the key steps and considerations for landlords navigating possession proceedings in the UK.

Introduction to Possession Proceedings

Possession proceedings typically arise when a landlord seeks to reclaim their property from a tenant. This can occur under various circumstances, including, but not limited to, rent arrears, breaches of tenancy agreements, or the conclusion of a fixed-term tenancy. Understanding the legal framework and procedural nuances is crucial for landlords to ensure a smooth and lawful property reclamation.

The grounds for possession can be broadly categorised into mandatory and discretionary grounds, as outlined in the Housing Act 1988. Each ground requires specific evidence and adherence to particular procedural steps.

Mandatory Grounds

Ground 1: Landlord’s Prior Residence

The landlord has previously lived in the property and wishes to return.

Ground 2: Mortgage Default

The property is subject to a mortgage, and the lender is reclaiming it due to default.

Ground 8: Rent Arrears

The tenant has accrued significant rent arrears, specifically two months’ arrears if rent is paid monthly.

Discretionary Grounds

Ground 10: Rent Arrears

The tenant has some rent arrears but not to the extent required under Ground 8.

Ground 11: Persistent Delay in Paying Rent

The tenant has a history of persistently delaying rent payments.

Ground 12: Breach of Tenancy Agreement

The tenant has breached terms of the tenancy agreement other than rent payment.

Ground 13: Deterioration of Property

The tenant or their household members have caused the property to deteriorate.

Ground 14: Nuisance or Annoyance

The tenant or their visitors have caused a nuisance or annoyance in the locality.

Initial Steps: Serving Notice

The first step in possession proceedings involves serving the appropriate notice to the tenant. The type of notice and its requirements depend on the grounds for possession.

Section 8 Notice

A Section 8 notice is used when possession is sought on the grounds of a breach of the tenancy agreement, such as rent arrears or antisocial behaviour. The notice must specify the ground(s) being relied upon and provide the tenant with a notice period, which can vary depending on the specific ground. For instance, Grounds 8, 10, and 11 typically require a two-week notice period.

Section 21 Notice

A Section 21 notice is a “no-fault” notice used to regain possession at the end of a fixed-term tenancy or during a periodic tenancy. This notice does not require the landlord to provide a reason for seeking possession. However, certain conditions must be met for a Section 21 notice to be valid:

  • The tenancy must be an assured shorthold tenancy (AST).
  • The tenant must have received a valid Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) and Gas Safety Certificate.
  • The landlord must have protected the tenant’s deposit in a government-approved scheme and provided the prescribed information to the tenant.
  • The landlord must have provided the tenant with the “How to Rent” guide.

A Section 21 notice typically requires a two-month notice period.

Commencing Possession Proceedings

If the tenant does not vacate the property following the expiration of the notice period, the landlord can commence possession proceedings by filing a claim in the county court. The process involves submitting a possession claim form and supporting documents to the court.

Standard Possession Claim

A standard possession claim may be appropriate for straightforward cases where the landlord seeks possession due to rent arrears or at the end of a fixed-term tenancy. The landlord must complete Form N5 (Claim for Possession) and Form N119 (Particulars of Claim), providing details of the tenancy, the grounds for possession, and any rent arrears.

Accelerated Possession Procedure

In cases where a Section 21 notice has been served, and there are no outstanding rent arrears, landlords may opt for the accelerated possession procedure. This streamlined process does not typically require a court hearing, allowing for a quicker resolution. The landlord must complete a Form N5B (Claim for Possession of Property under an Accelerated Procedure) and submit it to the court along with the Section 21 notice and relevant supporting documents.

Court Proceedings

Once the possession claim is filed, the court will serve the tenant with a copy of the claim and provide a date for the hearing, if applicable. During the hearing, the judge will consider the evidence presented by both parties.

Possession Hearing

At the possession hearing, both the landlord and tenant will have the opportunity to present their case. The judge will review the evidence, including the validity of the notice served and any relevant documentation. If the judge is satisfied that the landlord has met all the legal requirements and the grounds for possession are substantiated, they will grant a possession order.

Possession Order

A possession order specifies the date the tenant must vacate the property. There are two types of possession orders:

Standard Possession Order

The tenant must vacate the property by a specified date, typically within 14 or 28 days.

Suspended Possession Order

The tenant may remain in the property under certain conditions, such as adhering to a repayment plan for rent arrears.

Enforcement of Possession Orders

If the tenant fails to vacate the property by the date specified in the possession order, the landlord can apply for a warrant of possession. This involves requesting the court authorise bailiffs to evict the tenant.

Warrant of Possession

To obtain a warrant of possession, the landlord must complete Form N325 (Request for Warrant of Possession of Land) and submit it to the court. The court will then issue a warrant, and bailiffs will be appointed to carry out the eviction.

Bailiff Eviction

Bailiff eviction is the final step in the possession process. The bailiffs will notify the tenant of the eviction date and, if necessary, physically remove the tenant and their belongings from the property. Landlords should be present during the eviction to ensure the process runs smoothly.

Post-Eviction Considerations

Following the eviction, landlords may need to address several post-eviction matters, including the property’s condition and recovering any outstanding rent arrears.

Property Inspection and Repairs

Landowners should thoroughly inspect the property upon regaining possession to assess any damage or necessary repairs. They should also document the property’s condition and obtain estimates for any required repair work. This documentation can be useful if the landlord decides to pursue a claim for damages against the former tenant.

Recovering Rent Arrears

If the tenant has outstanding rent arrears, landlords can take legal action to recover the owed amount. This may involve filing a small claims court claim or using debt collection agencies. It is crucial to have accurate records of the arrears and any communication with the tenant regarding payment.

Navigating possession proceedings can be complex and fraught with potential pitfalls. Here are some legal and practical tips for landlords to ensure a smooth process:

Documentation and Record-Keeping

Maintain comprehensive records of the tenancy, including the tenancy agreement, rent payment history, and any communication with the tenant.

Adherence to Legal Requirements

Ensure compliance with all statutory requirements, such as providing the tenant with an EPC and a gas safety certificate and protecting the deposit.

Clear Communication

Communicate clearly and professionally with the tenant, especially when addressing rent arrears or breaches of the tenancy agreement.

Seeking Legal Advice

Consider seeking legal advice or representation, particularly for complex cases or when dealing with contentious tenants.

Utilising Mediation

Explore mediation as an alternative dispute resolution method to potentially avoid court proceedings and reach an amicable agreement with the tenant.


Possession proceedings are vital for landlords to reclaim their property, but they require careful navigation of legal requirements and procedural steps. From serving the appropriate notice to enforcing possession orders, each stage demands meticulous attention to detail and adherence to statutory regulations.

At DLS Solicitors, we understand landlords’ challenges in possession proceedings and are committed to providing expert guidance and support. Whether you need assistance serving notices, filing possession claims, or navigating court proceedings, our experienced team is here to help. Contact us today for a consultation and to ensure your possession proceedings are handled professionally and efficiently.

Possession Proceedings FAQ'S

Possession proceedings are legal actions initiated by a landlord to regain possession of a rental property from a tenant, usually due to reasons such as non-payment of rent, breach of tenancy agreement, or the end of the tenancy term.

Common grounds include non-payment of rent, anti-social behaviour, damage to the property, breach of tenancy terms, and the need for the landlord to move back into the property.

A Section 21 notice is a “no-fault” notice served by a landlord to end an assured shorthold tenancy in England and Wales. It does not require the landlord to provide a reason for seeking possession but must comply with specific legal requirements.

A Section 8 notice is served by a landlord when the tenant has breached the terms of the tenancy agreement, such as non-payment of rent. The notice specifies the grounds for seeking possession under the Housing Act 1988.

The notice period varies: a Section 21 notice typically requires at least two months’ notice, while a Section 8 notice period can range from two weeks to two months, depending on the grounds for possession.

If the tenant does not vacate the property after the notice period, the landlord must apply to the court for a possession order. The court will then decide whether to grant the order based on the evidence presented.

A possession order is a court order that requires the tenant to leave the property by a specified date. If the tenant fails to comply, the landlord can request a warrant for eviction, allowing bailiffs to remove the tenant.

Yes, a tenant can defend against possession proceedings by arguing that the notice was invalid, the landlord did not follow proper procedures, or that the tenant has a valid counterclaim, such as disrepair issues in the property.

The accelerated possession procedure is a faster court process available to landlords using a Section 21 notice for regaining possession of their property. It does not usually require a court hearing if the paperwork is in order.

Yes, possession proceedings can be stopped if the landlord and tenant reach an agreement, if the tenant rectifies the breach (e.g., pays overdue rent), or if the court finds in favour of the tenant’s defence.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 16th July 2024.

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