What is a Grant of Probate?

probate timelines
What is a Grant of Probate?

Probate is a term that often surfaces during discussions about wills and estate planning, but its implications and process can seem daunting. Essentially, probate is the legal procedure by which a deceased person’s will is approved as a valid public document, the final testament to the true intentions of the deceased regarding their estate. This process ensures that the estate is rightfully distributed to the designated beneficiaries, as dictated by the will, under the supervision of the law.

For those left behind, understanding probate is crucial not only for executing the will as intended but also to manage potential legal complexities efficiently. This blog aims to demystify what a grant of probate entails, its importance, and when and how it’s necessary to proceed with one in the UK.

What is probate?

Probate refers to the court-supervised process of authenticating a last will and testament, if the deceased made one. It includes locating and determining the value of the deceased’s assets, paying their final bills and taxes, and finally, distributing the remainder of the estate to their rightful heirs.

This process is necessary to ensure that the person’s estate is handled in an orderly and legally compliant manner. In the UK, not all estates must go through probate; it usually depends on the type and value of the assets the deceased had. If the estate is small or comprises mostly jointly held property, probate may not be required.

The process begins with the executor named in the will—or an appointed administrator if there is no will—applying for the right to deal with the deceased’s estate. This is where the grant of probate comes into play, serving as a legal document that authorises the executor to manage and distribute the estate’s assets according to the will.

What is a Grant of Probate?

A Grant of Probate is an official document issued by a section of the court known as the Probate Registry. The grant is necessary when a deceased person leaves behind a will and has property and assets that need to be settled and distributed among the heirs as specified in the will.

The Role of the Executor

The executor, who is typically appointed in the will by the deceased, is responsible for managing the estate. Their duties include everything from gathering all of the deceased’s assets, paying off debts and taxes, and distributing the remaining estate to the beneficiaries named in the will. However, in order to legally carry out these duties, the executor first needs to apply for and obtain a grant of probate.

Legal Implications

Obtaining a grant of probate legally empowers the executor to act on behalf of the deceased’s estate. It acts as a legal confirmation that the will is valid and that the executor is recognised as having the authority to manage the estate’s affairs. This is crucial, particularly when dealing with banks, financial institutions, and other entities that hold assets of the deceased, as they often require a grant of probate before they release the assets to the executor.

Applying for a Grant of Probate

Applying for a grant of probate is a systematic process that requires attention to detail and careful adherence to legal requirements. Here’s how the application process typically unfolds:

Step-by-Step Guide

  1. Locate the Original Will and Death Certificate: The executor needs to provide the original last will and testament along with the death certificate.
  2. Value the Estate: Before applying for probate, the executor must evaluate and document all the assets and liabilities of the estate. This includes everything from property and investments to outstanding debts.
  3. Complete Probate Application: The executor must complete a probate application form. In England and Wales, this is known as PA1P.
  4. Submit the Necessary Documents: Along with the application form, the executor needs to submit the will, death certificate, an Inheritance Tax form, and the calculated value of the estate to the Probate Registry.
  5. Swear an Oath: The executor is required to swear an oath that the information provided is true to the best of their knowledge. This can usually be done at a local probate office or a solicitor’s office.

Timeframe and Costs

The timeframe for obtaining a grant of probate can vary, typically taking anywhere from a few weeks to several months, depending on the complexity of the estate and the efficiency of the Probate Registry at the time of application. Costs can also vary; they include application fees, which are scaled based on the value of the estate, and potentially solicitor’s fees if professional help is required.

Situations Requiring a Grant of Probate

While a grant of probate is a common requirement, it is not always necessary. Understanding when it is required can save time and effort during the grieving process.

Typical Scenarios

  • Large Estate: If the deceased owned significant property or had substantial financial assets, a grant of probate is usually required.
  • Sole Ownership: Assets solely in the deceased’s name generally necessitate a grant of probate for legal transfer to beneficiaries.
  • Certain Types of Assets: Investments, insurance policies not written in trust, and stocks and shares are typical assets that often require a grant of probate to be accessed or transferred.

Examples of Assets Not Requiring Probate

  • Jointly Owned Property: If assets were owned jointly, they typically passed directly to the surviving owner without the need for probate.
  • Small Estates: Some banks and financial institutions have thresholds below which they will release funds without a grant of probate.


A grant of probate is a critical element in the administration of a deceased’s estate, ensuring legal and orderly management and distribution of assets as per the deceased’s wishes. It empowers the executor to act and provides clarity and legitimacy to the process of settling an estate. Understanding whether this legal document is required and how to obtain it is fundamental for anyone involved in executing a will.

The process can seem complex, but with the right information and guidance, it can be navigated successfully to provide peace of mind during a challenging time.

Avatar of DLS Solicitors by DLS Solicitors
13th May 2024
Avatar of DLS Solicitors
DLS Solicitors

Our team of professionals are based in Alderley Edge, Cheshire. We offer clear, specialist legal advice in all matters relating to Family Law, Wills, Trusts, Probate, Lasting Power of Attorney and Court of Protection.

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