Define: Covenant Not To Complete

Covenant Not To Complete
Covenant Not To Complete
Quick Summary of Covenant Not To Complete

A covenant not to compete, also known as a non-compete agreement or restrictive covenant, is a contractual provision in which one party agrees not to engage in certain competitive activities, such as working for a competitor or starting a competing business, for a specified period of time and within a defined geographic area. These agreements are often used in employment contracts to protect a company’s trade secrets, confidential information, customer relationships, and goodwill. By signing a covenant not to compete, an employee agrees to refrain from competing with their employer for a certain period after leaving the company, thereby safeguarding the employer’s interests. However, non-compete agreements must be reasonable in scope, duration, and geographic limitation to be enforceable, as courts may invalidate overly broad or oppressive restrictions that unduly limit an individual’s ability to earn a living.

What is the dictionary definition of Covenant Not To Complete?
Dictionary Definition of Covenant Not To Complete

A clause in an agreement where one party promises not to offer to sell or produce the same goods and services within a specified geographic area of the other party. Also called a non-compete clause or covenant.

Full Definition Of Covenant Not To Complete

A covenant not to compete, also known as a non-compete agreement (NCA), is a legal clause often incorporated into employment contracts, sale of business agreements, and other forms of contractual relationships. The primary purpose of such covenants is to restrict one party (typically an employee or a seller) from engaging in business activities that directly compete with the other party (typically an employer or buyer) for a specified period and within a specific geographic area. This legal overview will examine the enforceability, essential elements, and judicial approach to covenants not to compete under British law, as well as the implications for employers, employees, and other stakeholders.

Enforceability of Covenants Not to Compete

The enforceability of covenants not to compete in the UK is governed primarily by common law principles. These covenants are generally seen as a restraint of trade and are thus prima facie void unless they can be justified as reasonable between the parties and in the public interest.

Reasonableness Test

To determine the reasonableness of a non-compete clause, UK courts typically apply a three-pronged test:

  1. Legitimate Business Interest: The covenant must protect the legitimate business interest of the party seeking enforcement. Legitimate interests include trade secrets, confidential information, customer relationships, and the stability of the workforce.
  2. Temporal Scope: The duration of the restriction must be reasonable. Typically, non-compete clauses lasting up to six months are more likely to be upheld, whereas those extending beyond 12 months face greater scrutiny.
  3. Geographic Scope: The geographic area covered by the restriction must also be reasonable and proportionate to the interest being protected. A nationwide restriction is less likely to be enforceable compared to a localised one, unless the business operates on a national scale.

Judicial Approach

UK courts adopt a cautious approach to enforcing non-compete covenants. They balance the interests of the employer or buyer with the public interest in maintaining a competitive market and the individual’s right to work. Notably, courts will not rewrite or ‘blue-pencil’ an overly broad covenant to make it enforceable but may instead strike it down in its entirety.

Essential Elements of Covenants Not to Compete

For a covenant not to compete to be enforceable, it must meet specific criteria. These elements ensure that the covenant is justified and does not unreasonably restrain trade.

Clear Definition of Restricted Activities

The covenant must clearly define the activities that the restricted party is prohibited from undertaking. Vague or overly broad definitions can render the covenant unenforceable.

Specified Duration

The duration of the non-compete restriction must be explicitly stated. As mentioned, the period must be reasonable and proportionate to the interest being protected.

Geographical Limitations

The geographical scope of the restriction must be clear and reasonable. It should be directly related to the area where the employer or buyer has a legitimate business interest.


In employment contracts, the covenant must be supported by adequate consideration. For current employees, the promise of continued employment might suffice, whereas, for new employees, the offer of employment itself can be sufficient. In the sale of a business context, the consideration is typically the purchase price.

Types of Covenants Not to Compete

Covenants not to compete can vary significantly depending on the context in which they are used. The two primary contexts are employment and the sale of a business.

Employment Contracts

In employment contracts, covenants not to compete are designed to protect the employer’s business interests after the termination of an employee’s employment. These covenants are particularly common in industries where employees have access to sensitive information or key customer relationships.

Sale of Business Agreements

In the context of the sale of a business, non-compete covenants prevent the seller from starting a new, competing business that could undermine the value of the business being sold. These covenants are often more likely to be enforced, given that the buyer has a legitimate interest in protecting their investment.

Judicial Approach to Enforcement

The UK judiciary takes a nuanced approach when dealing with non-compete clauses, considering the specifics of each case to determine enforceability.

Case Law

Several key cases have shaped the judicial approach to non-compete covenants in the UK:

  • Nordenfelt v. Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co Ltd [1894]: This landmark case established the principle that covenants in restraint of trade are enforceable if they are reasonable in the interests of the parties and the public.
  • Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v. Harper’s Garage (Stourport) Ltd [1968]: This case highlighted the importance of the duration and geographic scope of the covenant, with the court refusing to enforce a 21-year non-compete clause.
  • Office Angels Ltd v. Rainer-Thomas [1991]: The Court of Appeal ruled that a six-month restriction on a recruitment consultant was enforceable, emphasizing the importance of protecting confidential information and customer connections.

Blue-Pencil Doctrine

The blue-pencil doctrine allows courts to sever unenforceable parts of a covenant, provided that the remainder of the covenant makes sense on its own and is reasonable. However, UK courts are generally reluctant to apply this doctrine, preferring instead to either uphold or strike down the entire covenant.

Implications for Employers and Employees

Non-compete covenants have significant implications for both employers and employees.


For employers, non-compete covenants are a critical tool for protecting business interests. However, they must be drafted carefully to ensure enforceability. Overly restrictive covenants can lead to legal challenges and may be struck down by courts. Employers must balance the need to protect their interests with the potential impact on employees’ career prospects.


For employees, non-compete covenants can limit future employment opportunities and career advancement. Employees should seek legal advice before agreeing to such covenants, ensuring they understand the implications and negotiating more favourable terms if necessary. In some cases, employees may challenge the enforceability of non-compete clauses in court.

Public Policy Considerations

Non-compete covenants must also be considered in light of broader public policy considerations. While they protect legitimate business interests, they can also restrict competition and limit individuals’ freedom to work. UK courts strive to balance these competing interests, ensuring that non-compete covenants do not unduly restrain trade or harm the public interest.

Practical Tips for Drafting Enforceable Covenants

Employers and their legal advisors should consider the following practical tips when drafting non-compete covenants:

  1. Clearly Define Scope: Specify the restricted activities, duration, and geographic area with precision.
  2. Justify Reasonableness: Ensure the covenant is no more restrictive than necessary to protect legitimate business interests.
  3. Tailor to Individual Circumstances: Customise covenants to reflect the specific role and access to sensitive information of each employee.
  4. Review Regularly: Regularly review and update non-compete covenants to reflect changing business needs and legal standards.
  5. Seek Legal Advice: Engage legal experts to ensure covenants are compliant with current laws and best practices.


Covenants not to compete are a vital aspect of contractual relationships in the UK, particularly in employment and business sales contexts. While they serve to protect legitimate business interests, their enforceability depends on meeting stringent legal standards of reasonableness. Employers must carefully draft these covenants to balance their interests with the rights of employees and public policy considerations. By understanding the legal framework and judicial approach to non-compete covenants, stakeholders can better navigate the complexities of these agreements and ensure they are used effectively and fairly.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th June 2024.

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