Declaration of Trust

Declaration of Trust
Declaration of Trust
Full Overview Of Declaration of Trust

A declaration of trust is an important legal document that outlines and formalises the terms of a trust. It specifies the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of the trustees and beneficiaries, ensuring clear and legal management and distribution of the trust’s assets. At DLS Solicitors, we understand the complexity and significance of creating a declaration of trust. This detailed overview aims to provide a thorough understanding of what a declaration of trust involves, its components, the legal framework, and best practices for a smooth and efficient process.

Exploring Declarations of Trust

A declaration of trust is a formal statement that establishes a trust and outlines how the trust property is to be held and managed by the trustees for the benefit of the beneficiaries. Trusts are used for a variety of purposes, including estate planning, asset protection, and managing property for minors or those unable to manage their affairs.

Core Functions of a Declaration of Trust

  1. Legal Recognition: It provides formal recognition of the trust arrangement and the parties involved.
  2. Clarity of Terms: It specifies the terms and conditions under which the trust is to be managed, ensuring clarity for all parties.
  3. Asset Protection: It can protect assets from creditors or in the case of beneficiaries who are minors or have special needs.
  4. Tax Efficiency: It can offer tax advantages, depending on how the trust is structured and managed.

Components of a Declaration of Trust

A comprehensive declaration of trust includes several key components, each of which plays a crucial role in detailing the trust arrangement:

Trust Property

This section details the property or assets that are being placed into the trust. This can include real estate, investments, cash, or personal property.

Parties Involved

  • Settlor: The person who creates the trust and transfers assets into it.
  • Trustees: The individuals or entities responsible for managing the trust property according to the terms of the trust.
  • Beneficiaries: The individuals or entities who are entitled to benefit from the trust.

Terms of the Trust

This part outlines the specific terms and conditions under which the trust is to be managed. This can include how income and capital are to be distributed, any conditions for distributions, and the duration of the trust.

Powers of Trustees

Details the powers granted to the trustees, such as the ability to invest trust property, make distributions to beneficiaries, and manage the trust property. This section may also outline any restrictions on the trustees’ powers.

Duties of Trustees

Outlines the duties and responsibilities of the trustees, including the duty to act in the best interests of the beneficiaries, maintain accurate records, and provide reports to beneficiaries as required.

Amendment and Termination

Specifies the conditions under which the trust can be amended or terminated. This can include provisions for the consent of the settlor, trustees, beneficiaries, or specific events that trigger termination.

Example of a Declaration of Trust Structure

An example structure for a declaration of trust might include:

  1. Trust Property: Description of the assets being placed into the trust.
  2. Parties Involved:
    • Settlor: John Doe
    • Trustees: Jane Doe and XYZ Trust Company
    • Beneficiaries: Children of John Doe
  3. Terms of the Trust: Income from the trust to be distributed annually to the beneficiaries; capital to be distributed upon the beneficiaries reaching the age of 25.
  4. Powers of Trustees: Authority to invest in a range of financial instruments, make distributions, and sell trust property.
  5. Duties of Trustees: Duty to manage the trust property prudently, keep accurate records, and provide annual reports to the beneficiaries.
  6. Amendment and Termination: Trust can be amended with the consent of the settlor and trustees; trust to terminate upon the youngest beneficiary reaching the age of 30.

The creation and management of trusts in the UK are governed by various laws and regulations to ensure they are legally compliant and managed in accordance with the settlor’s intentions:

Trustee Act 1925

This act outlines the general duties and powers of trustees, including the management and investment of trust property.

Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996

This act provides specific rules for trusts of land, including the powers of trustees and the rights of beneficiaries.

Inheritance Tax Act 1984

This act governs the tax implications of trusts, including the treatment of transfers into trust and the ongoing tax liabilities of the trust.

Finance Act 2006

This act introduced significant changes to the taxation of trusts, particularly affecting discretionary trusts and accumulation and maintenance trusts.

Data Protection Act 2018

This act ensures that personal information related to the trust is handled in compliance with data protection laws, safeguarding the privacy and security of all parties involved.

Best Practices for Creating and Managing Declarations of Trust

To ensure that a declaration of trust is legally compliant, clear, and effective, it is essential to follow best practices:

Accurate Documentation

Ensure that all information included in the declaration of trust is accurate and up-to-date. This includes a detailed description of the trust property and the specific terms and conditions of the trust.

Professional Legal Advice

Seek professional legal advice to ensure that the declaration of trust complies with all legal requirements and accurately reflects the settlor’s intentions.

Clear Communication

Maintain clear and open communication with all parties involved, including the settlor, trustees, and beneficiaries, to explain the terms of the trust and address any questions or concerns.

Regular Reviews

Regularly review the terms of the trust and the performance of the trustees to ensure that the trust continues to meet the needs of the beneficiaries and complies with any changes in the law.

Secure Storage

Store the declaration of trust and all related documents securely to protect the personal information of all parties and ensure that the documents are readily accessible when needed.

Detailed Records

Keep detailed records of all transactions and decisions related to the trust to ensure transparency and accountability.

Challenges in Creating and Managing a Declaration of Trust

Creating and managing a declaration of trust can present several challenges, particularly in ensuring that all legal requirements are met and that the trust operates effectively:

Legal Requirements

  1. Meeting Legal Standards: Ensuring that the declaration of trust complies with all legal standards can be challenging, particularly if there are questions about the validity of the trust or the value of the trust property.
  2. Understanding Obligations: Trustees may need help understanding their obligations under the trust, leading to mistakes or delays in the administration of the trust.

Financial Considerations

  1. Valuation of Assets: Accurately valuing the trust property to determine the beneficiaries’ entitlements can be complex and may require professional appraisals.
  2. Tax Implications: Understanding the tax implications for the trust and beneficiaries is crucial for accurate distribution and documentation.

Communication Challenges

  1. Informing Beneficiaries: Ensuring that all beneficiaries are fully informed about their entitlements and the terms of the trust can be challenging, particularly if there are many beneficiaries.
  2. Managing Disputes: Handling disputes or disagreements among beneficiaries regarding their entitlements can complicate the administration of the trust.

The Role of Solicitors in Declarations of Trust

Solicitors play a crucial role in creating and managing declarations of trust, providing expertise and support to ensure that the process is handled correctly and efficiently. Their responsibilities include:

Legal Advice

Providing legal advice on the requirements for creating a declaration of trust and the responsibilities of the settlor, trustees, and beneficiaries.

Document Preparation

Assisting with the preparation and review of the declaration of trust to ensure that all necessary information is included and that the document complies with legal requirements.

Trustee Support

Supporting the trustees in understanding and fulfilling their duties, including managing the trust property and communicating with beneficiaries.

Communication and Mediation

Helping to communicate with beneficiaries and mediate any disputes or disagreements that arise during the administration of the trust.

Tax Compliance

Ensuring that the declaration of trust reflects any tax liabilities and that the necessary tax returns are filed and paid on time.

Secure Storage and Record Keeping

Advising on the secure storage of the declaration of trust and maintaining detailed records of all related communications and transactions.

Case Study: Creation and Management of a Declaration of Trust

To illustrate the importance and effective handling of declarations of trust, consider the following case study:


Mr. Brown, a successful entrepreneur, wishes to create a trust to provide for his children’s education and future needs. He decides to place a portion of his business shares and real estate into the trust. His goal is to ensure that the assets are managed prudently and distributed according to his wishes.

Actions Taken

  1. Engagement of Solicitors: Mr. Brown engages DLS Solicitors to assist with creating the declaration of trust and managing the trust.
  2. Preparation of Trust Property: The solicitors assist Mr. Brown in identifying and valuing the assets to be placed into the trust, including business shares and real estate.
  3. Drafting the Declaration of Trust: The solicitors draft a comprehensive declaration of trust, detailing the trust property, parties involved, terms of the trust, powers and duties of trustees, and conditions for distributions.
  4. Appointment of Trustees: Mr. Brown appoints his trusted friend and a professional trustee company as the trust’s trustees.
  5. Communication with Beneficiaries: The solicitors help Mr. Brown communicate the terms of the trust to his children, explaining their entitlements and addressing any questions or concerns.
  6. Ongoing Management: The solicitors provide ongoing support to the trustees, ensuring that the trust is managed in accordance with the declaration’s terms and legal requirements.


The effective creation and management of the declaration of trust, combined with professional legal assistance, ensured that:

  • The trust was established in compliance with all legal requirements.
  • The trust property was accurately valued and managed prudently.
  • Mr. Brown’s children were fully informed about their entitlements and the terms of the trust.
  • The trust provided for the children’s education and future needs in accordance with Mr. Brown’s wishes.


A declaration of trust is a crucial part of estate planning and asset management. It establishes a clear and legally compliant framework for managing and distributing trust property. Understanding the components of a declaration of trust, the legal framework governing its creation, and best practices for managing it is essential for ensuring a smooth and efficient administration of the trust.

At DLS Solicitors, we are dedicated to providing comprehensive support and guidance in creating and managing declarations of trust. Our experienced team offers expert advice and professional assistance to ensure that all necessary steps are followed and that the declaration of trust is accurate, comprehensive, and legally compliant.

The challenges associated with creating and managing a declaration of trust, from meeting legal standards to managing communication with beneficiaries, can be effectively managed with the right support and resources. Whether dealing with straightforward estate planning or complex asset management, understanding the importance of declarations of trust and their role in the probate process is essential for navigating this critical aspect of legal and financial planning.

Declaration of Trust FAQ'S

In probate, a Declaration of Trust can help establish the ownership shares and rights of beneficiaries concerning a property held in trust. It clarifies how the property should be treated and distributed according to the deceased’s wishes.

A Declaration of Trust outlines the specific shares and interests of co-owners or beneficiaries in a property. This ensures that the property is distributed according to the terms of the trust, rather than solely according to the Will or intestacy laws.

Yes, a Declaration of Trust is considered part of the probate process as it provides legal documentation of ownership and can influence the distribution of the estate. Executors must take it into account when administering the estate.

A Declaration of Trust generally governs the specific property it pertains to and takes precedence over the terms of the Will regarding that property. The Will governs the distribution of other assets not covered by the trust.

The executor should review the Declaration of Trust to understand the ownership shares and terms. They must then ensure the property is managed and distributed according to the trust’s terms and not solely based on the Will.

If a Declaration of Trust is not found, the property might be treated according to the Will or intestacy laws. It’s crucial to thoroughly search for all relevant documents and consult with any co-owners or legal advisors who might have information about the trust.

Yes, beneficiaries can challenge a Declaration of Trust if they believe it is invalid or does not accurately reflect the deceased’s intentions. Such challenges might require legal action and evidence to support the claim.

While not all Declarations of Trust need to be registered, it is good practice to register any trust involving property with the Land Registry. This ensures it is legally recognised and easily accessible during probate.

A Declaration of Trust can affect the valuation of the estate and the calculation of inheritance tax. The trust terms will determine the taxable value of the property and how it should be reported to HMRC.

Executors should seek legal advice if there is a conflict between the Declaration of Trust and the Will. Generally, the terms of the Declaration of Trust regarding the specific property take precedence, but legal guidance is essential to resolve any disputes correctly.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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Our team of professionals are based in Alderley Edge, Cheshire. We offer clear, specialist legal advice in all matters relating to Family Law, Wills, Trusts, Probate, Lasting Power of Attorney and Court of Protection.

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