Define: Stakeholders

Quick Summary of Stakeholders

A person, group or organisation that has an interest in or concerns about an organisation.

Any individual, group or business with a vested interest (a stake) in the success of an organisation is considered a stakeholder. A stakeholder is typically concerned with an organisation delivering intended results and meeting its financial objectives. In general, a stakeholder can be one of two types: internal (from within an organisation) or external (outside of an organisation). Examples of a stakeholder are an owner, manager, shareholder, investor, employee, customer, partner, and/or supplier, among others. A stakeholder may contribute directly or indirectly to an organisation’s business activities. Other than a traditional business, a stakeholder may also be concerned with the outcome of a specific project, effort or activity, such as a community development project or the delivery of local health services. A stakeholder usually stands to gain or lose depending on the decisions taken or policies implemented.

Stakeholders can be affected by the organisation’s actions, objectives and policies.

Some examples of key stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees, the government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources.

What is the dictionary definition of Stakeholders?
Dictionary Definition of Stakeholders

A stakeholder is a party that has an interest in a company and can either affect or be affected by the business.

  1. A person holding the stakes of bettors, with the responsibility of delivering the pot to the winner of the bet.
  2. An escrow agent or custodian.
  3. A person filing an interpleader action, such as a garnishee or trustee, who acknowledges possession of property that is owed to one or more of several other claimants.
  4. A person or organisation with a legitimate interest in a given situation, action or enterprise.


Full Definition Of Stakeholders

Stakeholders play a critical role in the landscape of corporate governance, law, and business management. Understanding the legal framework surrounding stakeholders is essential for corporate entities, as stakeholders influence and are influenced by corporate actions. This overview will explore the various categories of stakeholders, their legal rights and responsibilities, and the impact of stakeholder considerations on corporate governance within the British legal context.

Defining Stakeholders

A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organisation that can affect or be affected by an organisation’s activities. The term encompasses a broad range of entities, including but not limited to shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, creditors, local communities, and regulators.

Categories of Stakeholders

  1. Shareholders: Owners of shares in a company, shareholders have a financial interest in the company’s performance. Their primary concern is the return on their investment.
  2. Employees: individuals employed by the company whose interests lie in job security, fair wages, and safe working conditions.
  3. Customers: consumers of the company’s products or services who are interested in quality, price, and service.
  4. Suppliers: Entities that provide goods or services to the company, concerned with timely payments and long-term business relationships.
  5. Creditors: Lenders or financial institutions that provide capital to the company, with interests in the company’s solvency and repayment of loans.
  6. Local Communities: Groups or individuals residing in the vicinity of the company’s operations, interested in the company’s impact on the local environment and economy.
  7. Regulators: Government bodies that enforce laws and regulations applicable to the company’s operations.

Stakeholder Theory

Stakeholder theory posits that companies should create value for all stakeholders, not just shareholders. This approach contrasts with the traditional shareholder primacy model, which prioritises shareholder interests above all others. In the UK, the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) reflects elements of stakeholder theory by requiring directors to consider various stakeholder interests in their decision-making process.

Legal Rights and Responsibilities of Stakeholders



Shareholders’ rights are primarily defined by the CA 2006 and the company’s articles of association. Key rights include:

  • Voting Rights: Shareholders can vote on major corporate decisions, such as electing directors and approving mergers.
  • Dividends: The right to receive a share of the company’s profits in the form of dividends, subject to the company’s profitability and board decisions.
  • Information Rights: Access to certain information, including annual reports and financial statements.
  • Derivative Actions: The ability to sue directors on behalf of the company if they believe the directors are acting improperly.


Shareholders have limited responsibilities, mainly focused on ensuring the company operates within legal and ethical boundaries. They are expected to act in good faith and avoid conflicts of interest.



Employees’ rights are protected by a combination of contract law, employment law, and health and safety regulations. Key rights include:

  • Fair Wages: Entitlement to at least the national minimum wage.
  • Safe Working Conditions: Protection under the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974.
  • Non-Discrimination: Rights under the Equality Act 2010 to be free from discrimination based on protected characteristics.
  • Redundancy and Dismissal: Protections related to redundancy payments and unfair dismissal under the Employment Rights Act 1996.


Employees must perform their contractual duties with reasonable care and skill, adhere to company policies, and maintain confidentiality.



Customers’ rights are primarily governed by consumer protection laws, including the Consumer Rights Act 2015, which ensures:

  • Product Quality: Goods must be of satisfactory quality, fit for purpose, and as described.
  • Fair Contracts: Protection against unfair terms in contracts.
  • Redress: right to refunds, repairs, or replacements if goods or services are faulty.


Customers are expected to use products as intended and comply with any terms and conditions agreed upon at the point of sale.



Suppliers’ rights are usually outlined in commercial contracts, ensuring:

  • Timely Payment: Right to be paid on time for goods or services provided.
  • Contractual Terms: Enforcement of agreed-upon terms and conditions.


Suppliers must deliver goods and services as per the contract specifications and maintain quality standards.



Creditors’ rights include:

  • Repayment: Right to repayment of the principal amount and interest.
  • Security Interests: Enforcement of security interests in collateral if the company defaults.


Creditors are required to act in good faith and in accordance with lending agreements.

Local Communities


Local communities may have certain rights under environmental and planning laws, such as:

  • Environmental Protection: Safeguards against pollution and environmental degradation.
  • Public Consultation: Right to be consulted in certain planning and development decisions.


Communities are expected to engage constructively in consultations and comply with planning and environmental regulations.



Regulators have statutory rights to:

  • Inspection and Enforcement: Conduct inspections and enforce compliance with laws and regulations.
  • Penalties and Sanctions: Impose fines and other penalties for non-compliance.


Regulators must act within their legal powers and ensure fair and consistent enforcement of regulations.

Corporate Governance and Stakeholder Considerations

Companies Act 2006

The CA 2006 is the primary legislative framework governing companies in the UK. Section 172 of the Act requires directors to act in a way they consider, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, while having regard to:

  • The likely consequences of any decision in the long term.
  • The interests of the company’s employees.
  • The need to foster the company’s business relationships with suppliers, customers, and others.
  • The impact of the company’s operations on the community and the environment.
  • The desirability of the company to maintain a reputation for high standards of business conduct.
  • The need to act fairly between members of the company.

This section embodies a broader view of corporate governance, encouraging directors to consider the interests of various stakeholders.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

CSR initiatives reflect a company’s commitment to ethical practices and sustainable development, often extending beyond legal requirements. Companies that engage in CSR activities aim to positively impact stakeholders through:

  • Environmental Sustainability: Reducing carbon footprints, managing waste, and promoting renewable energy.
  • Social Equity: Supporting community development, improving labour conditions, and enhancing diversity and inclusion.
  • Economic Viability: Ensuring long-term financial stability and responsible corporate practices.

Stakeholder Engagement

Effective stakeholder engagement involves regular communication and consultation with stakeholders to understand their concerns and expectations. This process helps build trust and fosters mutually beneficial relationships. Key methods of engagement include:

  • Surveys and Feedback: Gathering input from stakeholders through surveys and feedback mechanisms.
  • Stakeholder Meetings: Hold regular meetings with stakeholders to discuss issues and updates.
  • Public Reports: Publishing sustainability reports and other documents that outline the company’s impact and initiatives.

Legal Implications of Stakeholder Mismanagement

Failure to adequately consider and manage stakeholder interests can lead to significant legal and reputational risks. Potential legal implications include:


Stakeholders may initiate legal action against the company for breaches of contractual obligations, regulatory requirements, or fiduciary duties. Examples include:

  • Shareholder Derivative Suits: Shareholders suing directors for breach of duty.
  • Employee Claims: Claims for unfair dismissal, discrimination, or breach of employment contract.
  • Consumer Complaints: Legal action under consumer protection laws for defective products or unfair practices.

Regulatory Penalties

Regulators can impose fines, sanctions, or other penalties for non-compliance with legal obligations, such as:

  • Environmental Violations: Fines for pollution or failure to comply with environmental regulations.
  • Health and Safety Breaches: Penalties for failing to maintain safe working conditions.
  • Data Protection Infractions: Fines for violating data protection laws under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Reputational Damage

Mismanagement of stakeholder interests can severely damage a company’s reputation, leading to:

  • Loss of Trust: Erosion of stakeholder trust and loyalty.
  • Decreased Market Value: Negative impact on the company’s market valuation.
  • Customer Boycotts: Loss of customers and revenue due to negative publicity.

Best Practices for Legal Compliance and Stakeholder Management

Comprehensive Stakeholder Analysis

Conducting a thorough analysis to identify and understand the needs and expectations of all relevant stakeholders. This involves:

  • Mapping Stakeholders: Identifying all stakeholders and their level of influence.
  • Prioritising Stakeholders: Determining which stakeholders are most critical to the company’s success.

Clear Policies and Procedures

Establishing clear policies and procedures to manage stakeholder interactions, including:

  • Code of Conduct: Implementing a code of conduct that outlines ethical standards and practices.
  • Grievance Mechanisms: Providing channels for stakeholders to raise concerns and seek redress.

Regular Training and Development

Ensuring that employees and directors are regularly trained on legal requirements and best practices related to stakeholder management, such as:

  • Compliance Training: Training on regulatory compliance and legal obligations.
  • Ethics Training: Promoting ethical decision-making and behaviour.

Transparent Reporting and Communication

Maintaining transparency through regular reporting and open communication with stakeholders, including:

  • Annual Reports: Publishing comprehensive annual reports that include information on stakeholder engagement and CSR activities.
  • Stakeholder Meetings: Hold regular meetings with key stakeholders to discuss performance and address concerns.

Continuous Improvement

Regularly reviewing and improving stakeholder management practices to ensure they remain effective and aligned with legal requirements and best practices. This involves:

  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Continuously monitoring stakeholder interactions and evaluating the effectiveness of engagement strategies.
  • Feedback Integration: Incorporating stakeholder feedback into business decisions and practices.


The legal framework surrounding stakeholders is complex and multifaceted, requiring companies to carefully navigate their obligations and responsibilities. By adopting a comprehensive approach to stakeholder management and adhering to best practices, companies can mitigate legal risks, enhance their reputation, and create sustainable value for all stakeholders. Understanding the intricate relationship between stakeholders and corporate governance is crucial for achieving long-term success in the dynamic and evolving business environment of the United Kingdom.

Stakeholders FAQ'S

A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organisation that has an interest or “stake” in a particular project, organisation, or decision. Stakeholders may include employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, government agencies, communities, and others affected by or involved in the activities of an entity.

Stakeholders play various roles in business, including influencing decision-making, providing resources or support, advocating for their interests, and holding organisations accountable for their actions and impacts on society and the environment.

Stakeholder engagement is essential for building trust, fostering collaboration, mitigating risks, and ensuring the long-term success and sustainability of organisations. Engaging with stakeholders helps identify their needs, concerns, and expectations, leading to more informed decision-making and better outcomes.

Primary stakeholders in a business typically include shareholders, customers, employees, and suppliers. These stakeholders have a direct financial or operational interest in the organisation and are directly impacted by its activities and performance

Stakeholders can be categorized into various groups based on their relationship to the organisation. Common types of stakeholders include internal stakeholders (e.g., employees, managers) and external stakeholders (e.g., customers, investors, regulators, community members).

Organisations may identify stakeholders by conducting stakeholder analysis, which involves identifying individuals or groups affected by or affecting the organisation’s activities, assessing their interests, influence, and potential impact, and determining strategies for engaging with them effectively.

Stakeholder management involves identifying, prioritising, and addressing the needs and expectations of stakeholders throughout the life cycle of a project or organisation. It also includes such activities as communication, consultation, collaboration, and conflict resolution.

Effective stakeholder engagement involves establishing clear communication channels, soliciting feedback and input, addressing concerns and grievances, involving stakeholders in decision-making processes, and fostering open and transparent dialogue.

Some of the benefits of stakeholder engagement include improved decision-making, enhanced reputation and trust, reduced conflicts and risks, increased innovation and creativity, and better alignment with societal and environmental expectations.

Organisations can measure the success of stakeholder engagement efforts through various metrics, such as stakeholder satisfaction surveys, feedback mechanisms, stakeholder participation rates, resolution of issues, and the achievement of mutually beneficial outcomes.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th June 2024.

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