Tenancy in Common

Tenancy in Common
Tenancy in Common
Full Overview Of Tenancy in Common

Tenancy in Common (TIC) is a type of property co-ownership commonly seen in the UK. It’s an arrangement where two or more individuals jointly own property, with each person owning a specific share. These shares can be equal or unequal, and each co-owner has the right to sell or pass on their share independently.

Unlike joint tenancy, which includes the right of survivorship, tenancy in common offers a more flexible approach to property ownership, allowing for individual control over one’s portion of the property. This overview aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of tenancy in common, including its legal framework, advantages, disadvantages, and practical considerations for those involved in or considering such an arrangement.


Tenancy in Common is regulated by English property law, with its key aspects outlined in the Law of Property Act 1925 and subsequent legislation. In this type of ownership, each tenant in common owns an undivided share of the property, which means that while their ownership share is distinct, the property itself is not physically divided. This form of ownership can come about through various means, such as explicit agreement in the property deed, inheritance, or even through legal presumptions in the absence of clear indications of joint tenancy.

Key Characteristics of Tenancy in Common

  1. Individual Ownership of Shares: Each co-owner has a distinct, fractional interest in the property, which can be freely sold, mortgaged, or bequeathed. These shares do not have to be equal.
  2. No Right of Survivorship: Upon the death of a tenant in common, their share does not automatically pass to the surviving co-owners. Instead, it is distributed according to the deceased’s will or intestacy rules.
  3. Possession Rights: All tenants in common have equal rights to possess and use the entire property, irrespective of their share size. This can sometimes lead to disputes if the co-owners have differing views on property use.
  4. Transferability: Each co-owner can transfer their share to another party without the need for consent from other co-owners, although practical issues and potential disputes can arise from such actions.
  5. Creation of Tenancy in Common: This can be established through an express agreement among co-owners or through the presumption of tenancy in common in cases where joint tenancy is not explicitly specified.

Advantages of Tenancy in Common

  1. Flexibility in Ownership: Tenancy in Common allows for ownership shares to be tailored to the specific contributions or needs of each co-owner. This is particularly useful in situations where co-owners contribute differently towards the purchase price or property upkeep.
  2. Estate Planning Benefits: The ability to bequeath shares in a property makes Tenancy in Common a valuable tool in estate planning. It enables individuals to control the disposition of their share upon death, potentially avoiding disputes among heirs.
  3. Investment Opportunities: For investors, Tenancy in Common offers a way to diversify property investments without needing to purchase entire properties. This can be advantageous in managing risk and capital outlay.
  4. Access to Ownership: By allowing multiple individuals to co-own a property, Tenancy in Common can make property ownership more accessible, particularly in high-cost areas.

Disadvantages of Tenancy in Common

  1. Potential for Disputes: The equal right of possession and use can lead to conflicts among co-owners, especially if there are differing opinions on property management or use.
  2. Complexity in Decision-Making: Major decisions regarding the property require consensus among co-owners, which can be difficult to achieve and may slow down the decision-making process.
  3. Sale and Transfer Issues: While each co-owner can sell their share independently, finding a buyer for a fractional interest can be challenging. Additionally, new co-owners might not be agreeable to existing ones, leading to further disputes.
  4. Legal and Administrative Costs: The process of managing a property as tenants in common can involve significant legal and administrative costs, especially in resolving disputes or in the event of a co-owner’s death.

Practical Considerations

When considering or managing a tenant in common arrangement, several practical aspects should be taken into account:

  1. Clear Agreements: It is crucial to have a comprehensive agreement among co-owners detailing each party’s rights and responsibilities. This can include provisions for property use, maintenance, and dispute resolution mechanisms.
  2. Regular Communication: Maintaining open and regular communication among co-owners can help prevent misunderstandings and disputes. Regular meetings or updates can be beneficial in this regard.
  3. Professional Advice: Engaging solicitors or property advisors can provide valuable guidance in managing tenants in Common arrangements, particularly concerning legal obligations and estate planning.
  4. Insurance and Maintenance: Ensuring that the property is adequately insured and maintained is a collective responsibility. Clear guidelines should be established regarding contributions towards these expenses.
  5. Exit Strategies: Having a predefined exit strategy or procedure for selling shares can mitigate potential conflicts when a co-owner wishes to sell their interest. This could include first-refusal rights for existing co-owners or agreed-upon methods for valuation.

Case Studies

Case Study 1: Family Property

A family inherits a large estate and decides to hold it as tenants in common. Each member holds an equal share, reflecting their inheritance portion. Over time, some family members wish to sell their shares to invest in other ventures. They agree on a procedure where existing co-owners have the first right of refusal to purchase the shares, ensuring the property remains within the family as much as possible. This arrangement works well, and any disputes are resolved through family meetings facilitated by their solicitor.

Case Study 2: Investment Group

An investment group buys a commercial property as tenants in common. Each investor’s share is proportional to their financial contribution. The group sets up a management committee to handle property decisions, including rental agreements and maintenance. They also agree on a process for the transfer of shares, allowing other group members to buy out any departing investor’s share at a fair market value. This structured approach helps manage the property effectively and minimises conflicts.

Given the complexities associated with Tenancy in Common, obtaining legal advice is crucial. Solicitors can assist in drafting co-ownership agreements, advising on estate planning, and resolving disputes. They can also provide guidance on the implications of selling or bequeathing shares and help ensure compliance with relevant laws and regulations.

At our firm, we specialise in providing comprehensive legal support for tenants in common arrangements. Our services include:

  1. Drafting and Reviewing Agreements: We assist in creating clear, legally binding agreements that outline the rights and responsibilities of each co-owner.
  2. Dispute Resolution: Our experienced solicitors can help mediate and resolve disputes among co-owners, aiming for amicable solutions while protecting our clients’ interests.
  3. Estate Planning: We offer tailored advice on estate planning, ensuring that clients can effectively manage the disposition of their shares in line with their wishes.
  4. Property Transactions: Whether buying or selling shares, we provide expert guidance on the legal aspects of property transactions, ensuring smooth and compliant processes.
  5. Ongoing Legal Support: Our firm offers ongoing support for managing tenants in common arrangements, including advice on property management and compliance with legal obligations.


Tenancy in Common offers a flexible and practical approach to property co-ownership, providing significant benefits in ownership flexibility, estate planning, and investment opportunities. However, it also comes with potential challenges, especially regarding co-owner disputes and decision-making complexities. Understanding the legal framework, key characteristics, and practical considerations of tenancy in common can help co-owners navigate this form of property ownership effectively. Professional legal advice and support are invaluable in ensuring that tenant-in-common arrangements are managed effectively, providing peace of mind, and protecting the interests of all parties involved.

At our firm, we are dedicated to providing expert legal services tailored to the unique needs of tenants and common co-owners. Whether you are considering entering into such an arrangement or need assistance managing an existing one, our team of experienced solicitors is here to help. We pride ourselves on our commitment to providing clear, practical, and client-focused legal support, ensuring that your property interests are well-protected and effectively managed.

Tenancy in Common FAQ'S

Tenancy in Common is a form of property ownership where two or more individuals hold shares in a property. Each co-owner can own a different proportion of the property, and these shares can be freely transferred or bequeathed.

In joint tenancy, co-owners have equal shares, and the right of survivorship applies, meaning the property automatically passes to the surviving co-owners upon one owner’s death. In Tenancy in Common, shares can be unequal, and there is no right of survivorship; an owner’s share passes according to their will or intestacy rules.

Yes, each tenant in common can transfer or sell their share of the property independently without the consent of the other co-owners, subject to any agreement in place.

When a tenant in common dies, their share of the property passes according to their Will or the rules of intestacy if there is no Will. It does not automatically pass to the surviving co-owners.

Yes, tenants in common can own unequal shares in the property. The shares can be divided according to any agreed proportions, such as 50/50, 70/30, etc.

Major decisions regarding the property, such as selling or making significant alterations, generally require the agreement of all tenants in common. Day-to-day decisions might be managed individually, depending on the terms agreed upon by the co-owners.

A Tenancy in Common can be established by specifying this form of ownership in the property deed when the property is purchased or by converting a Joint Tenancy to Tenancy in Common through a legal process called severance.

Yes, a tenant in common can apply to the court for an order to sell the property if the co-owners cannot agree. The court will consider whether the sale is in the best interests of all parties involved.

Expenses and income from the property are typically shared in proportion to each tenant in common’s ownership share. This includes costs like mortgage payments, maintenance, and rental income.

Yes, a Tenancy in Common can be changed to Joint Tenancy if all co-owners agree and take the necessary legal steps to amend the ownership structure, usually by creating a new deed reflecting the joint tenancy.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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