Volenti Non Fit Injuria

Volenti Non Fit Injuria
Volenti Non Fit Injuria
Quick Summary of Volenti Non Fit Injuria

“Volenti non fit injuria” is a Latin legal maxim meaning “to one who is willing, no harm is done.” In legal contexts, it refers to the defence of consent, where a person knowingly and voluntarily exposes themselves to a risk or danger and subsequently suffers harm. The principle states that if an individual voluntarily assumes a risk or consents to an activity, they cannot later claim compensation for any resulting injuries or harm. This defence is often invoked in cases involving sports, recreational activities, or employment situations where participants understand and accept the risks involved. However, for the defence of volenti non fit injuria to apply, the consent must be informed, freely given, and not obtained through coercion or deception.

What is the dictionary definition of Volenti Non Fit Injuria?
Dictionary Definition of Volenti Non Fit Injuria

Latin for “to a willing person, no injury is done.” This doctrine holds that a person who knowingly and willingly puts himself in a dangerous situation cannot sue for any resulting injuries.

The principle of volenti non fit injuria, often truncated to ‘volenti’, can be pleaded as a defence to an action in tort. The word ‘volenti’ implies willingness or consent, and the defence implies that the claimant’s injuries arose from actions that he entered into voluntarily. The requirements of the defence are interpreted quite strictly by the courts and, for policy reasons, there are circumstances where it cannot be used at all. An employer, for example, cannot use it to defend against an action in negligence by an employee. A person who goes to the rescue of a victim of the defendant’s negligence is not ‘volenti’, if the circumstances were such as to make a rescue attempt foreseeable. This latter restriction also applies to ‘professional rescuers’: there is no fireman’s rule in English law.

Full Definition Of Volenti Non Fit Injuria

“Volenti non fit injuria” is a Latin legal maxim that translates to “to a willing person, no injury is done.” This principle plays a significant role in tort law, particularly as a defence mechanism. It holds that if an individual consents to a particular risk, they cannot later claim compensation for any harm that results from that risk. The concept is rooted in the idea of personal autonomy and the freedom to make choices, even those that involve potential danger. This overview examines the origins, applications, limitations, and implications of volenti non fit injuria within British law.

Historical Background

The origins of volenti non fit injuria can be traced back to Roman law, where it was used to denote the principle that no harm is done to one who consents. Over time, this maxim was integrated into common law systems, including British law, and has been refined through various judicial decisions.

The principle’s incorporation into British law reflects the broader legal tradition of acknowledging personal autonomy and responsibility. It aligns with the philosophical underpinnings of liberalism, which emphasises individual choice and accountability. As such, volenti non fit injuria serves as a counterbalance to the imposition of liability, ensuring that individuals cannot seek redress for harms they willingly and knowingly accepted.

Core Elements

For the defence of volenti non fit injuria to be successfully invoked, certain core elements must be established:

1. Voluntary Consent

The claimant must have voluntarily agreed to the risk. This consent must be freely given, without any coercion or undue influence. The voluntary nature of the consent is critical, as it underpins the idea that the individual knowingly accepted the potential consequences.

2. Knowledge of the Risk

The claimant must have full knowledge and understanding of the nature and extent of the risk involved. Mere awareness of a general risk is insufficient; the claimant must be aware of the specific risk that resulted in the injury.

3. Acceptance of the Risk

There must be clear evidence that the claimant accepted the risk. This acceptance can be explicit, such as signing a waiver or implied through conduct, such as participating in a hazardous activity with obvious dangers.

Applications in Tort Law

Volenti non fit injuria is predominantly applied in cases of negligence, where it serves as a defence for defendants accused of failing to take reasonable care. The principle operates on the premise that one who consents to a risk should not hold another party liable for the harm arising from that risk.

Sporting Activities

One of the most common applications of volenti non fit injuria is in the context of sporting activities. Participants in sports inherently accept certain risks associated with the nature of the sport. For example, in contact sports like rugby or boxing, injuries are foreseeable and often an integral part of the game. By choosing to participate, players are deemed to have consented to these risks.

Case Example: Condon v Basi (1985)

In Condon v Basi, the claimant, a football player, was injured by a tackle from the defendant. The court held that while players consent to the risk of injury inherent in the game, this consent does not extend to conduct that is outside the rules of the game or reckless. Thus, the defendant was liable as the tackle was considered reckless and beyond the scope of what the claimant had consented to.

Employment Context

In employment scenarios, volenti non fit injuria can be a contentious defence. Employers owe a duty of care to their employees to provide a safe working environment. However, if an employee knowingly accepts a risky task, the defence may be applicable.

Case Example: ICI Ltd v Shatwell (1965)

In ICI Ltd v Shatwell, the claimants were injured while handling explosives contrary to their employer’s safety instructions. The House of Lords held that the claimants had knowingly accepted the risk by disregarding safety protocols and thus, the defence of volenti non fit injuria was applicable.

Medical Treatment

Patients undergoing medical treatment often consent to procedures that carry inherent risks. By providing informed consent, patients accept these risks, which can shield medical practitioners from liability if the procedure results in harm.

Case Example: Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital (1985)

In Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital, the claimant alleged negligence for not being informed of a 1-2% risk of spinal damage. The court held that the doctor had obtained informed consent by explaining the significant risks, thus applying volenti non fit injuria to reject the claim.

Limitations and Exceptions

While volenti non fit injuria is a robust defence, it is not without limitations. The courts have identified several scenarios where the defence cannot be applied:

Public Policy

The courts may refuse to apply volenti non fit injuria if doing so would be contrary to public policy. This is particularly relevant in situations where allowing the defence would undermine societal interests or legal principles.

Case Example: Pitts v Hunt (1991)

In Pitts v Hunt, the claimant was a passenger on a motorcycle driven recklessly by the defendant, who was intoxicated. The court held that applying volenti non fit injuria would be against public policy as it would condone illegal and dangerous behaviour.

Inequality of Bargaining Power

If there is a significant disparity in the bargaining power between the parties, consent may not be deemed truly voluntary. This is often considered in employment or contractual relationships where one party may have little choice but to accept the risk.

Rescue Cases

Individuals who voluntarily put themselves in harm’s way to rescue others are typically not considered to have accepted the risk in a way that invokes volenti non fit injuria. The law recognises the societal value of rescue efforts and seeks to protect rescuers from legal repercussions.

Case Example: Haynes v Harwood (1935)

In Haynes v Harwood, a policeman was injured while trying to restrain a runaway horse. The court held that volenti non fit injuria did not apply because the policeman acted out of a sense of duty to protect the public, and his actions were not a voluntary acceptance of risk in the legal sense.

Contemporary Issues and Critiques

The application of volenti non fit injuria continues to evolve, with contemporary legal and societal developments influencing its interpretation. Several issues and critiques have emerged:

Informed Consent

The notion of informed consent is increasingly scrutinised, particularly in medical and contractual contexts. The adequacy of the information provided to individuals consenting to risks is crucial. Courts now demand more rigorous standards to ensure that consent is genuinely informed and voluntary.

Autonomy vs. Protection

The balance between respecting individual autonomy and protecting individuals from harm is a constant tension. Critics argue that volenti non fit injuria can sometimes be used to absolve powerful entities from their responsibilities, thereby exploiting individuals’ autonomy.

Technological and Environmental Risks

With advancements in technology and emerging environmental hazards, the nature of risks has become more complex. The principle of volenti non fit injuria must adapt to these new contexts, where risks may not be fully understood or foreseeable by those consenting to them.

Psychological and Societal Pressures

Consent may be influenced by psychological factors and societal pressures. Understanding the nuances of what constitutes voluntary consent in light of these influences is essential for the fair application of volenti non fit injuria.


Volenti non fit injuria remains a fundamental principle in British tort law, embodying the values of personal autonomy and responsibility. Its application across various contexts—from sports and employment to medical treatment—demonstrates its versatility and enduring relevance. However, the principle is not without its limitations and critiques. Courts must carefully balance the respect for individual autonomy with the need to protect individuals from undue harm, considering the complexities of modern risks and consent. As legal and societal contexts continue to evolve, so too will the application and interpretation of volenti non fit injuria, ensuring it remains a fair and just defence within the legal landscape.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 10th June 2024.

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