Appraisal Remedy

Appraisal Remedy
Appraisal Remedy
Quick Summary of Appraisal Remedy

When a company plans to undertake a significant action, such as merging with another company, certain shareholders may dissent from the decision. In such instances, these shareholders possess the entitlement to seek judicial intervention in determining the value of their shares. Subsequently, the company is obligated to repurchase these shares at the price determined by the judge. Termed as the appraisal remedy, this mechanism serves as a means for shareholders to safeguard their investment in the event of disagreement with the company’s actions.

What is the dictionary definition of Appraisal Remedy?
Dictionary Definition of Appraisal Remedy

The appraisal remedy is a legal provision that grants shareholders of a corporation the right to challenge and dissent from significant corporate decisions, such as mergers or acquisitions. With the help of a court-appointed appraiser, shareholders have the option to have their shares valued and to request that the corporation repurchase their shares at that value. For instance, if Company A decides to merge with Company B, certain shareholders may oppose the decision and use the appraisal remedy to demand a repurchase of their shares at the appraised value. Similarly, if a corporation intends to sell a substantial portion of its assets, shareholders who disagree with the decision can invoke the appraisal remedy to have their shares evaluated and demand a repurchase at the assessed value. These examples effectively demonstrate the practical application of the appraisal remedy. By exercising this legal right, shareholders can safeguard their investments and ensure they receive equitable compensation for their shares.

Full Definition Of Appraisal Remedy

The appraisal remedy, also known as dissenters’ rights, is a critical legal mechanism available to minority shareholders in certain corporate transactions. It provides a statutory right to shareholders who object to specific fundamental changes in the corporation, such as mergers, consolidations, or asset sales, to demand a judicial determination of the fair value of their shares. This overview will explore the appraisal remedy’s legal foundation, procedural requirements, valuation methods, judicial considerations, and its implications within corporate governance.

Historical Background

The appraisal remedy emerged in the early 20th century as a response to corporate activities that significantly altered the nature of shareholders’ investments. Historically, dissenting shareholders had limited recourse when disagreeing with major corporate decisions. The introduction of the appraisal remedy aimed to balance the interests of minority shareholders and corporate managers, providing a fair exit strategy for those opposed to certain transactions.

Legal Foundations

The Companies Act of 2006, which is primarily in charge of company law in the United Kingdom, governs the appraisal remedy. This legislation outlines the circumstances under which shareholders can invoke their appraisal rights and the procedures they must follow. The relevant provisions ensure that shareholders receive fair compensation for their shares when they dissent from specific corporate actions.

Key Provisions

  • Section 983-985 of the Companies Act 2006: These sections address the rights of minority shareholders in takeover situations, including the right to be bought out at a fair value.
  • Parts 26 and 27 of the Companies Act 2006: These parts deal with schemes of arrangement and reconstruction, providing mechanisms for dissenting shareholders to seek a court’s intervention for fair valuation.

Circumstances Triggering Appraisal Rights

Appraisal rights are typically triggered in the following scenarios:

  • Acquisitions and Mergers: If dissenting shareholders feel that the terms of the transaction do not accurately reflect the fair value of their shares, they may exercise their appraisal rights.
  • Takeovers: In hostile or friendly takeovers, minority shareholders who oppose the offer can seek an independent valuation of their shares.
  • Asset Sales: Significant sales of corporate assets may also give rise to appraisal rights if shareholders believe the transaction undermines the value of their investment.
  • Schemes of Arrangement: When a company proposes a scheme of arrangement, dissenting shareholders can apply for the court to determine the fair value of their shares.

Procedural Requirements

Invoking the appraisal remedy involves several procedural steps designed to ensure a fair and transparent process. The following outlines the general procedure under the Companies Act 2006:

  • Notice of Dissent: Shareholders must formally notify the company of their intention to dissent from the proposed transaction within a specified timeframe. This notice must be given before the shareholder meeting at which the transaction will be voted upon.
  • Demand for Appraisal: After the transaction is approved, dissenting shareholders must submit a demand for appraisal to the company. This demand should outline the shareholder’s request for a fair valuation of their shares.
  • Court Application: If the company and dissenting shareholders cannot agree on the fair value, the dissenting shareholders can apply to the court for an independent valuation.
  • Valuation Hearing: The court will conduct a hearing to determine the fair value of the shares. Both the company and the dissenting shareholders can present evidence and expert testimony to support their valuation claims.
  • Court Determination: The court will issue a determination of the fair value, which the company must pay to the dissenting shareholders. This value is binding on both parties.

Valuation Methods

Determining the fair value of shares is a complex process that involves various valuation methods. Courts typically consider multiple factors to arrive at a fair valuation, including:

  • Market Value: The current market price of the shares, if publicly traded, serves as a starting point for valuation.
  • Net Asset Value: The value of the company’s assets minus its liabilities can indicate the intrinsic value of the shares.
  • Earnings Value: Future earnings potential, discounted to present value, is often considered to determine the shares’ worth.
  • Comparable Transactions: The valuation may take into account prices paid in similar transactions involving comparable companies.
  • Expert Opinions: Testimonies from financial experts and appraisers play a crucial role in supporting the valuation arguments presented by both parties.

Judicial Considerations

Courts play a vital role in the appraisal process, ensuring that the valuation is fair and just for all parties involved. Key considerations include:

  • Fairness and Equity: The court aims to ensure that the valuation is equitable for both the dissenting shareholders and the company.
  • Minority Discount: Courts generally avoid applying a minority discount, which would reduce the valuation based on the minority status of the dissenting shareholders.
  • Going Concern Value: The valuation typically reflects the value of the company as a going concern rather than its liquidation value.
  • Interest on Award: Courts may also award interest on the determined fair value from the date of the transaction to the date of payment.

Implications for Corporate Governance

The appraisal remedy has significant implications for corporate governance, influencing the behaviour of both shareholders and corporate managers.

For Shareholders

  • Protection of Minority Interests: The appraisal remedy empowers minority shareholders by providing a mechanism to challenge transactions they believe are unfair.
  • Enhanced Negotiation Leverage: The threat of appraisal proceedings can strengthen the negotiating position of minority shareholders, potentially leading to better transaction terms.
  • Financial Compensation: Dissenting shareholders receive fair compensation for their shares, protecting their investment from being undervalued in corporate transactions.

For Corporate Managers

  • Transaction Scrutiny: The possibility of appraisal proceedings encourages managers to ensure that transactions are fair and transparent, reducing the risk of legal challenges.
  • Cost and Time Implications: Appraisal proceedings can be costly and time-consuming, prompting managers to carefully consider the implications of proposed transactions.
  • Reputation Management: Fair treatment of dissenting shareholders enhances the company’s reputation and fosters trust among its investor base.

Case Law Analysis

Several landmark cases in the UK have shaped the application and interpretation of the appraisal remedy. Key cases include:

  • Re Dorman Long & Co. Ltd. [1934] 1 Ch. 635: This case established the principle that dissenting shareholders are entitled to a fair valuation of their shares without a minority discount.
  • Re Blue Arrow plc [1987] BCLC 585: This case highlighted the court’s role in ensuring that the valuation reflects the going concern value of the company rather than its liquidation value.
  • Re a Company (No. 00370 of 1987) [1988] BCLC 562: This case underscored the importance of expert testimony and the court’s discretion in determining the fair value of shares.

Comparative Perspectives

The appraisal remedy is not unique to the UK; many jurisdictions have similar provisions, though the specifics can vary. A brief comparative analysis:

United States

In the US, state laws primarily govern the appraisal remedy, with Delaware being a notable jurisdiction. Key differences include:

  • Market-Out Exception: In some states, shareholders cannot exercise appraisal rights if their shares are publicly traded and there is a liquid market.
  • Exclusive Remedy: Appraisal is often the exclusive remedy for dissenting shareholders, limiting their ability to pursue other legal actions.
  • Strict Procedural Requirements: US law imposes stringent procedural requirements, and failure to comply can result in the forfeiture of appraisal rights.


Canadian corporate law also provides for appraisal rights, with notable features:

  • Broad Applicability: Appraisal rights in Canada apply to a wide range of transactions, including amalgamations, arrangements, and certain amendments to articles.
  • Court Discretion: Canadian courts have considerable discretion in determining the fair value, considering both market and intrinsic factors.
  • Shareholder Remedies: In addition to appraisal rights, Canadian law allows shareholders to pursue other remedies, such as oppression claims.

Challenges and Criticisms

Despite its importance, the appraisal remedy faces several challenges and criticisms:

  • Complexity and Cost: The appraisal process can be complex and expensive, potentially deterring shareholders from pursuing their rights.
  • Uncertainty in Valuation: Determining the fair value of shares involves subjective judgements, leading to uncertainty and potential disputes.
  • Limited Applicability: The remedy is only available in specific circumstances, potentially leaving shareholders without recourse in other situations.
  • Potential for Abuse: There is a risk that shareholders may invoke appraisal rights strategically to extract higher payments, even in fair transactions.

Future Developments

The appraisal remedy continues to evolve, with potential future developments including:

  • Legislative Reforms: Ongoing reforms to company law may address some of the criticisms and challenges associated with the appraisal remedy, making it more accessible and effective.
  • Increased Judicial Guidance: As more cases are litigated, increased judicial guidance can help clarify the standards and procedures for appraisal proceedings.
  • Technological Advancements: Advances in technology and valuation techniques may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the appraisal process.


The appraisal remedy is a vital tool for protecting minority shareholders’ interests in the face of significant corporate transactions. While it presents certain challenges and complexities, its role in ensuring fair treatment and equitable compensation is indispensable. By understanding the legal framework, procedural requirements, and valuation methods associated with the appraisal remedy, shareholders and corporate managers can navigate this area of law more effectively, fostering a fair and transparent corporate environment.

Appraisal Remedy FAQ'S

An appraisal remedy is a legal right that allows shareholders to seek a fair value for their shares in a corporation in certain circumstances, such as a merger or acquisition.

Shareholders can typically exercise an appraisal remedy when they believe the fair value of their shares is not being adequately considered in a corporate transaction, such as a merger or acquisition.

To initiate an appraisal remedy, shareholders typically need to follow specific procedures outlined in state corporate law, such as providing written notice of their intent to seek an appraisal and complying with any filing deadlines.

The fair value of shares in an appraisal remedy is typically determined based on various factors, including the company’s financial condition, future prospects, and the market value of the shares.

In some cases, shareholders pursuing an appraisal remedy may still be entitled to receive dividends or other distributions while the appraisal process is ongoing, but this can vary depending on the specific circumstances and applicable laws.

The potential outcomes of an appraisal remedy can include receiving a fair value payment for the shares, reaching a settlement with the company, or pursuing litigation to enforce the right to fair value.

There may be limitations on when shareholders can pursue an appraisal remedy, such as specific deadlines for exercising the right and restrictions on the types of corporate transactions that qualify for appraisal.

An appraisal remedy is typically only available in specific circumstances, such as in the context of a merger or acquisition, and may not be applicable to other types of corporate decisions.

Pursuing an appraisal remedy can involve various costs, such as legal fees, expert witness fees, and court costs, which shareholders should consider when deciding whether to exercise this right.

In some cases, shareholders may be asked to waive their right to an appraisal remedy as a condition of participating in a corporate transaction, but it’s important to carefully consider the implications of such a waiver before agreeing to it.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 8th June 2024.

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