Breach Of Covenant

Breach Of Covenant
Breach Of Covenant
Full Overview Of Breach Of Covenant

A breach of covenant is a significant concern in property law, involving the failure to adhere to the terms stipulated in a covenant, a formal agreement or promise embedded within a deed or lease. Covenants are critical in maintaining a property’s intended use and value and ensuring harmonious relations between landowners, tenants, and other stakeholders.

At DLS Solicitors, we understand the complexities surrounding covenant breaches and their implications. This comprehensive overview aims to elucidate the principles, legal framework, procedures, and strategic considerations associated with breaches of covenant.

Legal Framework

Covenants are legally binding promises or agreements contained within property deeds or leases, categorised into two main types: restrictive and positive.

Restrictive Covenants

Restrictive covenants limit or restrict specific actions regarding the use of the property. For example, a restrictive covenant might prohibit commercial activities on a residential property. These covenants run with the land, meaning they bind successive property owners.

Positive Covenants

Positive covenants require the covenantor (the party bound by the covenant) to perform specific actions, such as maintaining a fence or contributing to the upkeep of shared facilities. Unlike restrictive covenants, positive covenants do not automatically bind successive owners unless specific mechanisms are in place.

Importance of Covenants

Covenants play a crucial role in property management and use, ensuring that properties are used and maintained to protect their value and the interests of all parties involved.

Preservation of Property Value

Covenants help preserve property values by ensuring that they are used and maintained in ways that do not adversely affect their worth. For example, a restrictive covenant might prevent the construction of buildings that could obstruct views or reduce an area’s aesthetic appeal.

Protection of Rights and Interests

Covenants protect the rights and interests of property owners, tenants, and other stakeholders. For instance, a covenant might require a property owner to contribute to maintaining a private road, ensuring that all users have access to a well-maintained thoroughfare.

Facilitation of Development

Covenants facilitate orderly land development and use by setting clear rules and expectations. This clarity helps prevent disputes and ensures that developments proceed smoothly.

Breach of Covenant

A breach of covenant occurs when one party fails to adhere to the covenant terms. Breaches can arise in various contexts, including residential, commercial, and leasehold properties.

Common Types of Breaches

  • Restrictive Covenants: Breaches of restrictive covenants might involve unauthorised alterations to a property, conducting prohibited activities (such as running a business from a residential property), or failing to maintain the property as required.
  • Positive Covenants: Breaches of positive covenants might involve failing to perform required maintenance, not paying agreed contributions for shared facilities, or neglecting other specified obligations.

Consequences of Breach

The consequences of breaching a covenant can be severe, including legal action, financial penalties, and remedial obligations. The nature and severity of the consequences depend on the type of covenant and the specific terms of the agreement.

Legal Remedies for Breach of Covenant

Depending on the nature of the breach and the terms of the covenant, several legal remedies are available to address it.


An injunction is a court order requiring the breaching party to cease the offending action or to take specific steps to remedy the breach. Depending on the circumstances, injunctions can be temporary (interim) or permanent.


Damages are monetary compensation awarded to the aggrieved party for losses from the breach. The amount of damages depends on the extent of the harm caused and the specific terms of the covenant.

Specific Performance

Specific performance is a court order requiring the breaching party to fulfil their obligations under the covenant. This remedy is typically used for positive covenants, where monetary compensation would not adequately address the breach.


In the context of leasehold properties, forfeiture is a remedy that allows the landlord to terminate the lease due to the tenant’s breach of covenant. Forfeiture is a severe remedy and is subject to strict legal requirements.

The Process of Addressing a Breach of Covenant

Addressing a breach of covenant involves several steps, each requiring careful consideration and adherence to legal requirements.

Identifying the Breach

The first step is to identify and document the breach. This involves gathering evidence of the breach, such as photographs, witness statements, and relevant correspondence. Establishing a clear and detailed breach record is essential to supporting any subsequent legal action.

Communication and Negotiation

Before pursuing legal remedies, it is often advisable to communicate with the breaching party to resolve the issue amicably. This might involve sending a formal notice outlining the breach and requesting remedial action. Negotiation and mediation can often lead to a resolution without legal action.

Legal Advice and Action

If communication and negotiation are unsuccessful, seeking legal advice is crucial. A solicitor can provide guidance on the appropriate legal remedies and the likelihood of success. If legal action is necessary, the solicitor can assist in preparing and filing the necessary documents and representing the client in court.

Court Proceedings

If the dispute proceeds to court, the process involves several stages, including filing a claim, pre-trial procedures, and the trial itself. The court will consider the evidence and arguments presented by both parties and decide based on the case’s merits.

Enforcement of Remedies

Once a court decision is obtained, enforcing the remedies is the final step. This might involve obtaining a court order for an injunction, damages, or specific performance. If the breaching party fails to comply with the court order, further legal action may be necessary to enforce compliance.

Key Considerations in Dealing with Breaches of Covenant

Several key considerations are essential for effectively dealing with breaches of covenant:

Understanding the Terms

A thorough understanding of the terms of the covenant is crucial. This includes knowing the specific obligations, restrictions, and conditions attached to the covenant. Consulting the original deed or lease and any relevant legal documents is essential.

Evidence Gathering

Gathering clear and compelling evidence of the breach is vital for supporting legal action. This might include photographs, witness statements, and relevant correspondence or documentation.

Legal Advice

Seeking legal advice early can provide valuable guidance on the appropriate action. A solicitor can help assess the strength of the case, the available remedies, and the likelihood of success.

Communication and Negotiation

Attempting to resolve the issue through communication and negotiation is often advisable before pursuing legal action. This can save time and costs and may lead to a mutually agreeable resolution.

Cost Considerations

It is important to consider the potential costs of legal action, including court fees, legal fees, and potential damages. A cost-benefit analysis can help determine whether pursuing legal action is the best.

Case Studies and Examples

Residential Property Restrictive Covenant

Mr. and Mrs. Green purchased a property subject to a restrictive covenant prohibiting any business activities. Their neighbour, Mr. White, started operating a car repair business from his garage, causing noise and traffic issues. Mr. and Mrs. Green gathered evidence of the breach and attempted to resolve the issue through negotiation, but Mr. White refused to cease his activities. They sought legal advice and obtained an injunction requiring Mr. White to stop operating his business from the property.

Commercial Lease Positive Covenant

A commercial tenant, XYZ Ltd., leased a property with a positive covenant requiring them to maintain the building’s exterior. The landlord, ABC Properties, noticed that the building’s exterior had fallen into disrepair and requested XYZ Ltd. to perform the necessary maintenance. XYZ Ltd. failed to comply, and ABC Properties sought legal advice. They obtained a court order for specific performance, requiring XYZ Ltd. to fulfil their maintenance obligations.

Shared Facilities Contribution Covenant

Residents of a private road had a covenant requiring each household to contribute to the maintenance of the road. One resident, Ms. Brown, refused to pay her share, leading to tension among the residents. The residents’ association gathered evidence of the covenant and Ms. Brown’s refusal to pay. After unsuccessful attempts to negotiate the issue, the association sought legal advice and obtained a court order for Ms. Brown to pay her share of the maintenance costs.

Legal Instruments and Safeguards

Several legal instruments and safeguards ensure the effective implementation and enforcement of covenants:

Deeds and Leases

Covenants are typically contained within deeds or leases, providing a formal and legally binding record of the agreement. These documents outline the specific obligations and restrictions and serve as the basis for any legal action.

Registration and Public Notice

Restrictive covenants are usually registered with the Land Registry, providing public notice of the covenant. This registration ensures that successive owners are bound by the covenant and are aware of their obligations.

Legal Advice and Representation

Seeking legal advice and representation ensures that the process of addressing a breach of covenant is legally compliant and effective. Solicitors can guide clients to the appropriate remedies and represent them in court.

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

In addition to court proceedings, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation and arbitration, can provide structured processes for resolving disputes. These mechanisms can be less costly and time-consuming than court proceedings and may lead to mutually agreeable resolutions.

Challenges and Considerations

While addressing breaches of covenant provides essential legal protections and benefits, it also presents specific challenges and considerations:

Complexity of Legal Requirements

The legal requirements for addressing covenant breaches can be complex and time-consuming. Ensuring compliance with all relevant laws and regulations is essential to avoid delays and invalidation of remedies.

Potential for Disputes

Despite the clear legal framework, disputes can still arise, particularly if the breaching party challenges the covenant or the enforcement action. Landowners and tenants must be prepared to handle such disputes and provide evidence of compliance.

Impact on Relationships

Addressing covenant breaches can impact relationships between neighbours, landlords, and tenants. Clear communication and fair treatment are essential to maintaining professional relationships and avoiding conflict escalation.

Cost and Time Considerations

Pursuing legal remedies can incur significant costs and time, particularly if the case is contested. Landowners and tenants must consider these potential costs and weigh them against the benefits of addressing the breach.

Best Practices

Adopting best practices can enhance the effectiveness and success of addressing breaches of covenant:

Early and Continuous Monitoring

Monitoring compliance with covenants early and continuously helps identify and address potential breaches before they escalate. Regular inspections and reviews of property use can prevent issues from arising.

Clear Communication and Documentation

Maintaining clear communication with all parties involved and documenting all agreements helps prevent misunderstandings and disputes. Clear documentation provides evidence for legal action and supports compliance.

Strategic Use of Legal Remedies

Maximising the use of available legal remedies, such as injunctions, damages, and specific performance, is crucial for effectively addressing covenant breaches. Seeking legal advice on the appropriate remedies can ensure the best outcomes.

Professional Advice and Representation

Seeking professional advice from solicitors or legal experts provides valuable insights and guidance on addressing breaches of covenant. Professional representation can also provide support in the event of court proceedings or disputes.


Breaches of covenant are significant concerns in property law, involving the failure to adhere to the terms of a covenant. By understanding the legal framework, procedures, and strategic considerations associated with breaches of covenant, landowners, tenants, and other stakeholders can effectively manage these issues and ensure compliance.

At DLS Solicitors, we are committed to providing comprehensive support and guidance to clients navigating the complexities of breaches of covenant. Our expertise ensures clients achieve the best possible outcomes when dealing with restrictive covenants, positive covenants, or leasehold obligations.

By adopting best practices, seeking professional advice, and maintaining clear communication, clients can effectively manage breaches of covenant and achieve positive outcomes. Breaches of covenant, when managed correctly, can be resolved efficiently and fairly, ensuring the protection of property value and the rights of all parties involved.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th July 2024.

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