Define: Consequential Damage

Consequential Damage
Consequential Damage
Quick Summary of Consequential Damage

Consequential damage refers to the indirect or secondary harm that occurs as a result of a particular event or action. In legal terms, it typically refers to the financial losses or damages that are not directly caused by the defendant’s actions, but are a foreseeable consequence of those actions. Consequential damages may include lost profits, loss of business opportunities, or other economic losses that result from the defendant’s breach of contract or negligence. In order to recover consequential damages, the plaintiff must demonstrate that such damages were reasonably foreseeable and directly caused by the defendant’s actions.

What is the dictionary definition of Consequential Damage?
Dictionary Definition of Consequential Damage

Consequential damages, also known as special damages, are a type of remedy sought by the plaintiff against the defendant for harm resulting from the defendant’s actions. These damages need not directly arise from the defendant’s wrongful act but naturally flow from the act, as explained in the case of Haynes & Boone v. Bowser Bouldin (para. 182)

Consequential damages, also referred to as special damages, are sought in civil court as a remedy for contract breaches. These damages arise when one party to a contract fails to fulfil their obligations.

To illustrate consequential damages, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario:

Abe and Bob enter into a contract for Abe to sell his magazine store to Bob. The contract contains a provision allowing Bob to withdraw from the agreement without penalty if the store is damaged before the final real estate closing. A month before the closing, the building sustains minor fire damage that can be easily repaired. Despite the minor nature of the damage, Bob decides to back out of the contract, constituting a breach. The consequential damages in this case would be the lost profits suffered by Abe due to the failed sale of his store.

Consequential damages are characterised by specific elements:

  • These damages go beyond the direct losses incurred by the non-breaching party.
  • They are not typically foreseeable or expected in the ordinary course of business by a reasonable person.
  • Commonly, consequential damages include lost profits resulting from a contract breach.
Full Definition Of Consequential Damage

Consequential damage, often referred to as indirect or special damage, is a key concept in contract and tort law. Understanding its implications, particularly within the jurisdiction of British law, requires a thorough examination of its definition, relevant legal principles, and notable case law. This overview aims to elucidate these aspects comprehensively.

Definition and Distinction

Consequential damage refers to losses that do not arise directly and immediately from a breach of contract or tortious act but occur as a secondary result of the initial harm. These damages are typically not the immediate result of the breach but are foreseeable outcomes that arise due to special circumstances known to the parties involved at the time of the contract.

Direct vs. Consequential Damages

  1. Direct Damages: These are damages that naturally and necessarily flow from the breach of contract. For example, if a supplier fails to deliver goods, the direct damage would be the cost of obtaining the goods from another supplier at a higher price.
  2. Consequential Damages: These are damages that, while not directly caused by the breach, occur as a foreseeable result of the breach under specific circumstances. Continuing with the same example, if the delay in receiving goods causes the buyer to miss a major sales opportunity, the lost profits from that missed opportunity could be considered consequential damages.

Legal Framework in the UK

In the United Kingdom, the legal framework governing consequential damages is largely derived from common law principles, statutory provisions, and a wealth of case law that has developed over time.

Common Law Principles

The seminal case of Hadley v. Baxendale (1854) established the foundational test for recovering consequential damages in breach of contract cases. According to this case, damages can be recovered if:

  1. They arise naturally, i.e., according to the usual course of things from the breach (direct damages).
  2. They were in the contemplation of both parties at the time the contract was made as the probable result of the breach (consequential damages).

This principle, known as the “Hadley v. Baxendale Rule,” essentially sets the boundaries for what constitutes recoverable consequential damages by emphasizing foreseeability and the knowledge of the parties.

Statutory Provisions

The Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 are key statutes that influence the awarding of damages, including consequential damages, in the UK. These statutes provide a framework within which damages for breach of contract are assessed, often incorporating the common law principles established in Hadley v. Baxendale.

Notable Case Law

Several cases have further refined the principles governing consequential damages:

  1. Victoria Laundry (Windsor) Ltd v. Newman Industries Ltd (1949): This case expanded on Hadley v. Baxendale by introducing the concept of “reasonable foreseeability.” The court held that damages could include lost profits that were reasonably foreseeable by both parties at the time of the contract.
  2. Transfield Shipping Inc v. Mercator Shipping Inc (The Achilleas) (2008): This House of Lords decision added nuance to the foreseeability test, emphasizing the importance of the parties’ intentions and the assumption of responsibility. The ruling indicated that even if a loss was foreseeable, it would not be recoverable as consequential damage if it was not something the party in breach could reasonably be assumed to have accepted responsibility for.

Application in Contract Law

In contract law, consequential damages are critical when assessing the full extent of loss suffered due to a breach. The courts examine several factors to determine whether consequential damages are recoverable:

  1. Foreseeability: As established in Hadley v. Baxendale, the damages must have been foreseeable by both parties at the time of contract formation.
  2. Causation: There must be a clear causal link between the breach and the consequential damages claimed. The claimant must prove that the breach directly led to the consequential losses.
  3. Mitigation: The claimant is required to take reasonable steps to mitigate their losses. If they fail to do so, their claim for consequential damages may be reduced accordingly.

Example Scenario

Consider a scenario where a software company fails to deliver a critical update to a client’s system on time. If this delay causes the client to lose significant business opportunities, the lost profits could be claimed as consequential damages. However, the client must demonstrate that these losses were foreseeable at the time of the contract and that they took reasonable steps to mitigate their losses, such as seeking an alternative solution promptly.

Application in Tort Law

In tort law, consequential damages are often considered under the broader category of compensatory damages, which aim to restore the claimant to the position they would have been in had the tortious act not occurred. The principles of foreseeability, causation, and mitigation apply similarly to those in contract law.

Example Scenario

Imagine a situation where a construction company’s negligence leads to a gas leak in a residential area, forcing residents to evacuate temporarily. The direct damages might include the cost of repairs, while consequential damages could encompass lost income for businesses in the area, relocation expenses for residents, and other secondary financial impacts. The affected parties would need to prove that these losses were foreseeable, directly caused by the negligence and that they took steps to mitigate their losses where possible.

Challenges and Considerations

Proving Consequential Damages

One of the main challenges in claiming consequential damages is proving the extent of the loss. This often involves detailed financial records, expert testimony, and a clear demonstration of the causal link between the breach and the consequential losses.

Limitation Clauses

Many contracts include limitation or exclusion clauses that attempt to restrict liability for consequential damages. Under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, such clauses are subject to a test of reasonableness, particularly in consumer contracts. The courts will assess whether the limitation is fair and reasonable given the circumstances at the time the contract was made.

Differentiating Consequential from Direct Damages

Another challenge is accurately differentiating between direct and consequential damages. This distinction is crucial because it affects the recoverability of the damages. Courts will scrutinize the nature of the losses and the context of the contract to make this determination.

Practical Implications for Businesses

For businesses, understanding the implications of consequential damages is vital for both drafting contracts and managing risks. Here are some practical considerations:

  1. Clear Contract Terms: Businesses should ensure their contracts clearly define the scope of liability and the types of damages covered. Including specific clauses about consequential damages can help manage expectations and limit exposure to unforeseen liabilities.
  2. Risk Management: Identifying potential risks and their likely impacts can aid in better preparing for and mitigating the effects of consequential damages. This can involve thorough risk assessments, appropriate insurance coverage, and contingency planning.
  3. Dispute Resolution: In the event of a dispute, having clear documentation and evidence to support claims for consequential damages is essential. This includes maintaining detailed records of communications, agreements, and any mitigation efforts taken.


Consequential damage is a complex but essential aspect of both contract and tort law in the UK. The principles of foreseeability, causation, and mitigation play a crucial role in determining the recoverability of such damages. Through case law and statutory provisions, the legal framework provides guidance on how consequential damages should be approached, assessed, and awarded.

For businesses and individuals alike, understanding these principles and their practical implications can help in effectively managing legal risks and ensuring fair compensation when breaches of contract or tortious acts occur. As legal interpretations and commercial practices evolve, staying informed about developments in this area remains crucial for navigating the complexities of consequential damages.

Consequential Damage FAQ'S

Consequential damage refers to the indirect or secondary losses that occur as a result of a breach of contract or other legal wrongdoing. It includes financial losses, lost profits, and damages to reputation or business relationships.

Yes, consequential damages can be recovered in a lawsuit if they were reasonably foreseeable and directly caused by the breach or wrongdoing. However, the specific circumstances and terms of the contract will determine the availability and extent of recovery.

Yes, there may be limitations on recovering consequential damages, depending on the jurisdiction and the terms of the contract. Some contracts may include clauses that limit or exclude liability for consequential damages.

To prove consequential damages, you will typically need to provide evidence that demonstrates the causal connection between the breach or wrongdoing and the indirect losses suffered. This may involve financial records, expert testimony, or other relevant evidence.

Yes, parties to a contract can agree to waive or exclude consequential damages through specific contractual provisions. However, such provisions must be clear and unambiguous to be enforceable.

Direct damages are the immediate and foreseeable losses that directly result from a breach or wrongdoing. Consequential damages, on the other hand, are the indirect losses that flow from the breach or wrongdoing but are not the immediate result.

Yes, consequential damages can be recovered in a personal injury case if they are a direct result of the injury. For example, if a person’s injury prevents them from working and earning income, the lost wages would be considered consequential damages.

Yes, consequential damages can be recovered in a breach of warranty case if they were reasonably foreseeable and directly caused by the breach. This may include costs incurred due to the defective product or losses suffered as a result of the breach.

Yes, consequential damages can be recovered in a negligence case if they were a foreseeable consequence of the negligent act or omission. However, the plaintiff must prove that the damages were caused by negligence and were not too remote or speculative.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th June 2024.

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