Define: Probate In Common Form

Probate In Common Form
Probate In Common Form
Quick Summary of Probate In Common Form

Probate in common form is a type of probate that is granted by the registry without any formal court procedure. The executor can apply for probate without having to go to court. However, the judgement can be reopened by a party who was not given notice. For example, if a person dies and leaves a will, the executor can apply for probate in common form by submitting the will to the registry. If the registry determines that the will is valid, it will grant probate. However, if someone with an interest in the estate was not notified of the application, they can request to have the judgement reopened.

What is the dictionary definition of Probate In Common Form?
Dictionary Definition of Probate In Common Form

Probate is a legal procedure in which a court determines the validity of a person’s will and manages their property and debts after their death. There are two types of probate: common form and solemn form. Common form probate is granted without a formal court process, while solemn form probate is granted in an open court setting. The probate estate refers to the property that is under the administration of a personal representative. The net probate estate is the remaining amount after deductions.

Full Definition Of Probate In Common Form

Probate is the legal process through which a deceased person’s estate is administered and distributed according to their will or the laws of intestacy if there is no will. In England and Wales, probate can be granted in one of two forms: common form or solemn form. This legal overview focuses on probate in common form, detailing its procedures, legal implications, and distinctions from probate in solemn form.

Definition and Scope

Probate in common form is a non-contentious, straightforward procedure for proving a will. It is granted when the validity of the will is not contested and there are no disputes regarding the estate. The process is typically administrative, involving the submission of necessary documents to the Probate Registry without the need for a court hearing.

Legal Basis

The administration of probate in common form is governed by the Non-Contentious Probate Rules 1987 and the Senior Courts Act 1981. These statutes provide the framework for handling non-contentious probate matters, ensuring that the process is efficient and accessible.

Application Procedure

Initial Steps

  1. Gathering Documents: The executor must gather the original will, the death certificate, and details of the deceased’s assets and liabilities.
  2. Inheritance Tax: Before applying for probate, the executor must address inheritance tax issues. This involves completing and submitting forms to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC), even if no tax is due.
  3. Application Forms: The principal form used in applying for probate in common form is the PA1P (for probate) or PA1A (if there is no will, for letters of administration).

Submission to the Probate Registry

The executor submits the following documents to the Probate Registry:

  • Completed application form (PA1P or PA1A).
  • The original will and any codicils.
  • An official copy of the death certificate.
  • The inheritance tax receipt or a statement indicating no tax is due.
  • The probate fee, which varies depending on the value of the estate,.

Swearing the Oath

The executor must swear an oath before a solicitor or a commissioner for oaths. The oath confirms the executor’s commitment to faithfully administer the estate and is a crucial step in obtaining the grant of probate.

Grant of Probate

Once the Probate Registry is satisfied with the application and supporting documents, it issues the grant of probate. This document authorises the executor to manage the deceased’s estate according to the will.

Responsibilities of the Executor

Administering the Estate

The executor’s duties include:

  • Collecting and managing the estate’s assets.
  • Paying any debts and liabilities.
  • Distributing the estate to the beneficiaries as specified in the will.

Record Keeping

The executor must maintain accurate records of all transactions related to the estate. This includes receipts, bank statements, and a detailed account of how the estate is distributed.

Legal Implications

Validity of the Will

Probate in common form assumes the will’s validity. If later contested, the probate can be revoked, and the matter may proceed to probate in solemn form, where the will’s validity is scrutinised in court.

Executor’s Authority

The grant of probate empowers the executor with legal authority to act on behalf of the estate. This includes accessing bank accounts, selling property, and managing investments.

Beneficiary Rights

Beneficiaries have the right to be informed about the estate’s administration. They can request information and challenge the executor’s actions if they suspect mismanagement or fraud.

Differences Between Probate in Common Form and Solemn Form

Nature of the Process

  • Common Form: Non-contentious and administrative. No court hearing is required.
  • Solemn Form: Contentious. It involves a court hearing where the will’s validity is contested.

Documentation and Evidence

  • Common Form: Basic documentation, including the will, death certificate, and tax forms.
  • Solemn Form: Requires comprehensive evidence, witness testimonies, and legal arguments.

Time and Cost

  • Common Form: Generally quicker and less expensive due to its administrative nature.
  • Solemn Form: Longer and more costly due to court proceedings and legal representation.

Common Issues and Resolutions

Will Disputes

If a dispute arises after the grant of probate in common form, it can escalate to probate in solemn form. Common grounds for disputes include:

  • Allegations of undue influence.
  • Claims of lack of testamentary capacity.
  • Accusations of fraud or forgery.

Missing or Multiple Wills

If multiple wills are discovered, the most recent valid will prevails. The executor must provide the Probate Registry with all known wills, and the Registry will determine which will is valid.

Errors in Application

If errors are found in the application for probate, the executor may need to resubmit documents or provide additional information. Common errors include incorrect details about the deceased’s assets or inaccurate inheritance tax calculations.

Recent Developments and Reforms

Digital Applications

The UK government has been modernising the probate process, allowing for online applications. This aims to streamline the procedure, making it more accessible and efficient.

Simplified Inheritance Tax Forms

Efforts are being made to simplify inheritance tax forms for estates below a certain threshold, reducing the administrative burden on executors.

Practical Tips for Executors

Early Preparation

Executors should begin preparing for their role as soon as possible. This includes familiarising themselves with the deceased’s financial affairs and seeking legal or financial advice if necessary.

Professional Assistance

While probate in common form is generally straightforward, executors may benefit from professional assistance, especially in complex estates. Solicitors or probate specialists can provide valuable guidance and ensure compliance with legal requirements.

Clear Communication

Maintaining clear communication with beneficiaries is crucial. Keeping them informed about the progress of the estate administration can prevent misunderstandings and potential disputes.

Accurate Record-Keeping

Executors should keep meticulous records of all transactions and decisions made during the estate administration. This not only ensures transparency but also protects the executor from potential allegations of mismanagement.


Probate in common form is a fundamental aspect of estate administration in England and Wales, providing a streamlined, non-contentious process for proving a will. While the procedure is generally straightforward, it requires careful attention to detail and adherence to legal requirements. Executors play a vital role in ensuring the efficient administration of the deceased’s estate, and understanding the intricacies of probate in common form is essential for fulfilling their duties effectively.

By understanding the legal framework, responsibilities, and potential challenges associated with probate in common form, executors can navigate the process with confidence and ensure that the deceased’s wishes are honoured and their estate is managed appropriately.

Probate In Common Form FAQ'S

Probate in common form refers to the process of proving the validity of a will in court. It involves presenting evidence and arguments to establish the authenticity of the will and the appointment of the executor.

Probate in common form is a simpler and less formal process compared to probate in solemn form. In common form, the court’s decision is not final and can be challenged, while in solemn form, the court’s decision is conclusive and cannot be appealed.

Any interested party, such as a beneficiary or executor named in the will, can apply for probate in common form. They must file the necessary documents and pay the required fees to initiate the process.

The documents required for probate in common form typically include the original will, death certificate, application for probate, and any other supporting documents that may be necessary to establish the validity of the will.

The duration of probate in common form can vary depending on the complexity of the case and the court’s workload. It can take several months to a year or more to complete the process.

Yes, probate in common form can be contested by interested parties who believe the will is invalid or have concerns about the appointment of the executor. They can file a caveat or challenge the probate in court.

If probate in common form is contested, the court will hold a hearing to consider the evidence and arguments presented by both parties. The court will then make a decision on the validity of the will and the appointment of the executor.

Generally, the executor should not distribute assets until probate is granted. However, in certain circumstances, the court may allow the executor to make interim distributions if it is in the best interest of the estate and beneficiaries.

Probate in common form can be avoided by utilizing estate planning tools such as trusts, joint ownership, or beneficiary designations. These methods allow assets to pass directly to beneficiaries without going through the probate process.

While it is not mandatory to have legal representation for probate in common form, it is highly recommended. An experienced probate attorney can guide you through the process, ensure compliance with legal requirements, and help protect your interests.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 10th June 2024.

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