Visitation Rights

Visitation Rights
Visitation Rights
Full Overview Of Visitation Rights

Visitation rights, also known as contact or access rights, are an essential aspect of family law, especially in cases involving the custody and well-being of children. These rights are intended to ensure that children maintain meaningful relationships with both their parents and other significant individuals in their lives, even after the end of a marriage or partnership.

As specialists in family law, we at DLS Solicitors understand the complexities and sensitivities involved in determining and enforcing visitation rights. This overview provides a comprehensive understanding of visitation rights, including their legal framework, practical considerations, and common challenges.


Definition of Visitation Rights

Visitation rights are the legal permission granted to a non-custodial parent or other significant individuals to spend time with a child. These rights are typically established following the separation or divorce of the child’s parents, but they can also apply in other circumstances, such as when a parent is incarcerated or when grandparents seek contact with their grandchildren.

The main aim of visitation rights is to balance the child’s best interests with the rights of the non-custodial parent or other individuals. The primary principle is to ensure that the child maintains a stable and loving relationship with both parents, which is essential for their emotional and psychological well-being.

The legal framework governing visitation rights in the United Kingdom is primarily derived from the Children Act 1989. This act places the child’s welfare as the paramount consideration in any decision regarding contact or visitation.

Children Act 1989

The Children Act 1989 outlines the principles and provisions related to the upbringing of children, including contact arrangements. Key sections relevant to visitation rights include:

  1. Section 1: Welfare of the Child: This section establishes that the child’s welfare is the court’s primary concern when making any decision regarding their upbringing. The court must consider various factors, such as the child’s wishes and feelings, physical and emotional needs, and the potential impact of any change in circumstances.
  2. Section 8: Child Arrangement Orders: This section provides for the issuance of Child Arrangement Orders, which can determine with whom a child is to live, spend time, or otherwise have contact. These orders can specify the frequency and duration of visits, as well as any conditions or restrictions.
  3. Parental Responsibility: The act defines parental responsibility and the rights and duties it encompasses. Both parents generally retain parental responsibility regardless of their relationship status, which includes the right to seek visitation.

Case Law

In addition to statutory provisions, case law plays a significant role in shaping the interpretation and application of visitation rights. Notable cases include:

  • Re L, V, M, and H (Contact: Domestic Violence) [2000] 2 FLR 334: This case highlighted the need for careful consideration of domestic violence allegations when determining contact arrangements. The court emphasised that the child’s safety and welfare must be prioritised.
  • Re C (A Child) (Contact: Parental Responsibility Order) [2008] EWCA Civ 2: This case reinforced the principle that contact with both parents is generally in the child’s best interests, barring any evidence to the contrary.

Determining Visitation Rights

Determining visitation rights involves thoroughly assessing various factors to ensure that the arrangements serve the child’s best interests. The following considerations are typically taken into account:

  1. Best Interests of the Child: The primary consideration is the child’s welfare. The court will evaluate the potential impact of visitation on the child’s emotional and psychological well-being.
  2. Child’s Wishes and Feelings: Depending on the child’s age and maturity, their preferences may be considered. While the child’s wishes are important, they are not the sole determining factor.
  3. Parent-Child Relationship: The nature and quality of the relationship between the child and the non-custodial parent are assessed. A positive and supportive relationship can support a case for regular visitation.
  4. Practical Arrangements: The court examines the practicality of the proposed visitation schedule, including the distance between the parents’ homes, the parents’ work schedules, and the child’s schooling and extracurricular activities.
  5. Safety and Welfare Concerns: Any concerns related to the safety and welfare of the child, such as allegations of abuse or neglect, are given significant weight. The court may impose supervised visitation or other safeguards if necessary.
  6. Consistency and Stability: The court aims to provide a consistent and stable routine for the child. Frequent changes or disruptions to a child’s schedule can be detrimental to their well-being.

Types of Visitation Arrangements

Visitation arrangements can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances of the case. Common types of visitation arrangements include the following:

  1. Regular Visitation: This involves a fixed schedule where the non-custodial parent has regular, predictable contact with the child. This can include weekends, holidays, and school breaks.
  2. Supervised Visitation: In cases where there are concerns about the child’s safety or well-being, the court may order supervised visitation. This means that visits take place in the presence of a third party, such as a social worker or a family member.
  3. Virtual Visitation: With advancements in technology, virtual visitation (e.g., video calls) has become a viable option, especially when physical visits are not feasible due to distance or other constraints.
  4. Holiday and Vacation Visitation: Special arrangements can be made for holidays and vacations, allowing the non-custodial parent extended time with the child during these periods.
  5. Flexible Visitation: In some cases, the court may order flexible visitation arrangements that allow the parents to work out the details themselves based on mutual agreement and the child’s needs.

Enforcing Visitation Rights

Ensuring that visitation rights are honoured can sometimes be challenging, especially if there is conflict between the parents. Various mechanisms are in place to enforce visitation rights:

  1. Mediation and Dispute Resolution: Mediation can be an effective way to resolve disputes regarding visitation arrangements. A neutral third party facilitates discussions and helps the parents reach a mutually agreeable solution.
  2. Court Orders: If mediation fails, the court can issue orders to enforce visitation rights. A breach of a court order can result in legal consequences, including fines or imprisonment.
  3. Family Court: The family court has the authority to enforce visitation rights and can take various actions, such as modifying existing orders, imposing sanctions, or ordering make-up visitation.
  4. Legal Assistance: Engaging a solicitor with expertise in family law can be crucial in navigating the legal process and ensuring that visitation rights are upheld.

Common Challenges in Visitation Rights

While visitation rights are intended to benefit the child and maintain parent-child relationships, several challenges can arise:

  1. Parental Conflict: High levels of conflict between parents can hinder effective communication and cooperation, making it difficult to establish and maintain visitation arrangements.
  2. Relocation: When one parent relocates, it can complicate visitation schedules and may require modifications to existing arrangements.
  3. Non-Compliance: Situations where one parent refuses to comply with visitation orders can lead to legal disputes and enforcement actions.
  4. Child’s Resistance: In some cases, the child may resist visiting the non-custodial parent due to emotional or psychological reasons. Addressing the child’s concerns and seeking professional support may be necessary.
  5. Safety Concerns: Allegations of abuse or neglect can necessitate supervised visitation or other protective measures, adding complexity to the arrangements.

Practical Advice for Parents

For parents navigating visitation rights, the following practical advice can be beneficial:

  1. Prioritise the Child’s Needs: Always consider the best interests of the child when making decisions about visitation. A child-centred approach fosters a supportive and nurturing environment.
  2. Effective Communication: Maintain open and respectful communication with the other parent. Effective communication helps resolve disputes and ensure smooth visitation arrangements.
  3. Flexibility and Cooperation: Be flexible and cooperative when making visitation arrangements. Life circumstances can change, and a willingness to adapt can prevent conflicts.
  4. Document Everything: Keep detailed records of visitation schedules, communication, and any incidents related to visitation. Documentation can be valuable in cases of disputes or legal proceedings.
  5. Seek Professional Support: Engaging a family law solicitor can provide valuable guidance and support. Solicitors can assist with mediation, court proceedings, and the enforcement of visitation rights.


Visitation rights are an important part of family law, aimed at making sure that children can have meaningful relationships with both parents and other important people in their lives. The legal framework, mainly established by the Children Act of 1989, prioritises the child’s welfare and provides ways to decide and enforce visitation schedules.

At DLS solicitors specialising in family law, we are committed to helping our clients navigate the complexities of visitation rights. Whether you are a parent looking to establish or enforce visitation rights or dealing with challenges related to contact arrangements, our team is here to offer expert guidance and support.

By understanding the legal principles, practical considerations, and potential challenges associated with visitation rights, parents can make informed decisions that are in the best interests of their children. Our goal is to ensure that children have the opportunity to maintain loving and supportive relationships with both parents, which contributes to their overall well-being and development.

Visitation Rights FAQ'S

Visitation rights, also known as contact rights, are the legal rights granted to non-custodial parents or other relatives to spend time with a child. These rights are intended to maintain and develop a relationship between the child and the non-custodial parent or relative.

Parents, grandparents, and other relatives can apply for visitation rights. While parents usually have an automatic right to apply, other relatives, like grandparents, may need to seek permission from the court before applying.

A parent can obtain visitation rights by agreeing on a contact arrangement with the other parent or by applying to the family court for a child arrangements order if an agreement cannot be reached.

Courts consider the best interests of the child, including the child’s age, needs, and wishes, the parents’ ability to cooperate, and the existing relationship between the child and the non-custodial parent.

Yes, visitation rights can be denied or restricted if the court believes that contact would not be in the child’s best interests, such as in cases of abuse, neglect, or other circumstances that may harm the child.

Visitation schedules can be arranged based on the needs and circumstances of the child and parents. This can include regular weekly visits, weekend stays, holidays, and school vacations.

Yes, visitation rights can be changed or modified if there is a significant change in circumstances. Either parent can apply to the court to vary the terms of the existing child arrangements order.

If a parent is not complying with visitation orders, the other parent can apply to the court for enforcement. The court can take various actions, including adjusting the order, imposing penalties, or requiring the non-compliant parent to attend a program.

Grandparents do not have an automatic right to visitation but can apply to the court for permission to seek a contact order. The court will consider the child’s best interests and the existing relationship between the grandparent and the child.

If there is a history of domestic violence, the court will carefully consider the safety and welfare of the child and the non-abusive parent. Visitation may be supervised or restricted, and in some cases, it may be denied.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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