Writ Of Possession

Writ Of Possession
Writ Of Possession
Quick Summary of Writ Of Possession

A writ of possession is a legal document issued by a court to regain ownership of land or property from an unauthorised occupant. For instance, if a tenant is evicted by a landlord due to non-payment of rent, the landlord can obtain a writ of possession to lawfully remove the tenant from the property. This example demonstrates how a writ of possession can be used to reclaim property from someone who is not the rightful owner. In this scenario, the landlord is the rightful owner of the property, while the tenant is unlawfully occupying it. The writ of possession grants the landlord the legal authority to evict the tenant from the property.

What is the dictionary definition of Writ Of Possession?
Dictionary Definition of Writ Of Possession

A writ of possession is a legal document that grants the owner the authority to reclaim their land or property. It functions as a key to access a house or apartment occupied by someone else. This writ is issued by a court and provides the owner with the legal right to repossess their property.

Full Definition Of Writ Of Possession

A Writ of Possession is a crucial legal instrument in the realm of property law, particularly within the context of landlord-tenant disputes and mortgage repossessions. It serves as a judicial order that empowers a landlord or property owner to reclaim possession of their property from an occupant, typically following the conclusion of legal proceedings that establish the right of the landlord or owner to recover the property. This comprehensive overview will explore the nature, process, implications, and enforcement of a Writ of Possession, with a particular focus on the legal framework governing such writs in the United Kingdom.

Legal Framework

Statutory Basis

In the UK, the issuance of a Writ of Possession is grounded in various statutory provisions. Key statutes include the Housing Act 1988, which governs residential tenancies, and the Law of Property Act 1925, which applies to mortgage possessions. Additionally, the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) 1998, specifically Part 55, detail the procedures for possession claims and the subsequent enforcement of possession orders.


Writs of Possession are typically issued by the County Court in the jurisdiction where the property is located. In certain high-value or complex cases, the High Court may also be involved. The choice of court depends on factors such as the value of the property and the nature of the tenancy agreement or mortgage.

Grounds for Issuance

Residential Tenancies

In the context of residential tenancies, landlords may seek a Writ of Possession for various reasons, including:

  1. Non-payment of Rent: Persistent arrears in rent payments often lead to possession proceedings.
  2. Breach of Tenancy Agreement: Violations of the terms of the tenancy agreement, such as causing damage to the property or engaging in anti-social behaviour, can justify possession.
  3. End of Fixed-Term Tenancy: Upon the expiry of a fixed-term tenancy, landlords may seek possession if they do not wish to renew the tenancy.

Mortgage Repossessions

For mortgage repossessions, lenders may seek a Writ of Possession when the borrower defaults on mortgage payments. The lender must demonstrate that the borrower has failed to comply with the terms of the mortgage agreement, thus necessitating the repossession of the property to recover the outstanding debt.

Legal Process

Initiation of Proceedings

The process begins with the initiation of possession proceedings by the landlord or lender. This typically involves:

  1. Issuance of Notice: The landlord or lender must serve the tenant or borrower with a notice of the intention to seek possession. For residential tenancies, this is usually a Section 8 or Section 21 notice under the Housing Act 1988. For mortgages, this involves a default notice.
  2. Filing a Claim: Following the expiration of the notice period, the claimant (landlord or lender) files a possession claim in the appropriate court. The claim form must detail the grounds for possession and provide evidence supporting the claim.

Court Hearing

Once the claim is filed, the court schedules a hearing to assess the merits of the case. During the hearing:

  1. Presentation of Evidence: Both parties present their evidence and arguments. The claimant must prove the grounds for possession, while the defendant (tenant or borrower) can challenge the claim or present mitigating circumstances.
  2. Judgment: The court evaluates the evidence and renders a judgment. If the court finds in favour of the claimant, it issues a possession order, specifying a date by which the defendant must vacate the property.

Issuance of Writ of Possession

If the defendant fails to vacate the property by the date specified in the possession order, the claimant can apply for a Writ of Possession. This involves:

  1. Application to Court: The claimant submits an application for a Writ of Possession, typically to the court that issued the possession order. The application must include details of the possession order and evidence that the defendant has not vacated the property.
  2. Issuance of Writ: Upon reviewing the application, the court issues the Writ of Possession, which authorises court bailiffs or High Court Enforcement Officers (HCEOs) to take possession of the property.

Enforcement of Writ of Possession

Role of Bailiffs and HCEOs

The enforcement of a Writ of Possession is primarily carried out by court bailiffs or HCEOs. Their role includes:

  1. Service of Writ: The writ must be served on the defendant, informing them of the impending eviction. This service is usually accompanied by a notice of eviction, specifying the date and time of enforcement.
  2. Physical Eviction: On the specified date, the bailiffs or HCEOs attend the property to execute the writ. This involves removing the defendant and their belongings from the premises. If necessary, they may use reasonable force to gain entry and secure the property.
  3. Handover to Claimant: Once the property is vacated, it is handed over to the claimant, who regains possession.

Legal Safeguards and Defendant’s Rights

Right to Appeal

Defendants have the right to appeal against the issuance of a possession order or Writ of Possession. Grounds for appeal may include procedural errors, new evidence, or mitigating circumstances that were not considered during the initial hearing.

Suspension of Writ

In certain circumstances, defendants can apply for a suspension of the Writ of Possession. This application is typically made to the court that issued the writ and may be granted if the defendant can demonstrate exceptional hardship or other compelling reasons.

Homelessness Considerations

Local authorities have a duty to assist individuals who are rendered homeless as a result of eviction. Defendants facing eviction may be eligible for assistance under the Homelessness Reduction Act 2017, which imposes a duty on local councils to prevent homelessness and provide support to those affected.

Implications and Consequences

For Landlords and Lenders

For landlords and lenders, obtaining a Writ of Possession is often a necessary step to protect their financial interests and ensure the effective management of their properties. However, the process can be time-consuming and costly, necessitating compliance with stringent legal requirements.

For Tenants and Borrowers

For tenants and borrowers, the issuance and enforcement of a Writ of Possession can have severe consequences, including loss of housing and financial hardship. It underscores the importance of adhering to tenancy agreements and mortgage terms and seeking early legal advice if facing potential eviction.

Recent Developments and Reforms

Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the enforcement of possession orders and writs. Temporary legislative measures, such as the Coronavirus Act 2020, introduced extended notice periods and restrictions on evictions to protect tenants and borrowers during the public health crisis. These measures highlighted the need for a balanced approach to possession proceedings, ensuring both the protection of vulnerable individuals and the rights of property owners.

Ongoing Reforms

The UK government has been considering reforms to improve the possession process, including proposals to abolish Section 21 “no-fault” evictions and enhance tenant protections. These reforms aim to create a more equitable legal framework that balances the interests of landlords and tenants and ensures fairer outcomes in possession disputes.


A Writ of Possession is a vital legal tool that facilitates the enforcement of possession orders, allowing landlords and lenders to reclaim their properties from occupants who have breached tenancy agreements or mortgage terms. The process involves multiple stages, including the initiation of possession proceedings, court hearings, and the physical eviction of defendants by court bailiffs or HCEOs. While essential for protecting property rights, the enforcement of Writs of Possession must be balanced with legal safeguards and considerations for the rights and welfare of tenants and borrowers.

Understanding the legal intricacies of a Writ of Possession is crucial for both property owners and occupants, ensuring that all parties are aware of their rights, obligations, and the legal remedies available to them. As the legal landscape continues to evolve, ongoing reforms and legislative changes will shape the future of possession proceedings, striving to achieve a fair and just balance between the interests of all stakeholders involved.

Writ Of Possession FAQ'S

A Writ of Possession is a legal document issued by a court that authorizes a landlord or property owner to regain possession of their property from a tenant who has failed to comply with the terms of their lease or rental agreement.

A landlord can apply for a Writ of Possession after obtaining a judgment for possession against the tenant. This typically occurs when the tenant has failed to pay rent or has violated other terms of the lease.

The time it takes to obtain a Writ of Possession can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific circumstances of the case. Generally, it can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks.

Yes, a tenant can challenge a Writ of Possession by filing a motion to stay or set aside the writ. This may be done if the tenant believes there was a procedural error or if they have a valid defence to the eviction.

Once a Writ of Possession is issued, it is typically served on the tenant by a sheriff or constable. The tenant is then given a specific period of time to vacate the premises voluntarily. If they fail to do so, the landlord can request the sheriff or constable to physically remove the tenant and their belongings.

No, a landlord cannot legally evict a tenant without a Writ of Possession. The writ is necessary to provide the landlord with the legal authority to regain possession of the property.

No, landlords are generally prohibited from using self-help measures, such as changing locks or removing a tenant’s belongings, to evict a tenant. These actions are illegal and can result in legal consequences for the landlord.

Yes, a Writ of Possession can be used for both residential and commercial properties. The process and requirements may vary slightly depending on the jurisdiction and the specific lease agreement.

Yes, a tenant can appeal a Writ of Possession if they believe there was a legal error or if they have a valid defence to the eviction. The specific procedures and deadlines for filing an appeal will depend on the jurisdiction.

While a Writ of Possession allows a landlord to regain possession of the property, it does not automatically grant them the right to recover unpaid rent. Landlords may need to pursue separate legal action, such as filing a lawsuit, to recover any outstanding rent or damages.

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This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 9th June 2024.

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