Wells Order

Wells Order
Wells Order
Full Overview Of Wells Order

The Wells Order is a crucial component in the UK’s personal injury and medical negligence claims. Named after the landmark case Wells v. Wells, this judicial order significantly influences the compensation awarded to claimants. It is essential for legal practitioners, particularly those involved in personal injury law, to comprehend the nuances and implications of the Wells Order. This overview explores its historical context, legal principles, practical application, and recent developments.

Historical Context

The Case of Wells v. Wells

The Wells Order originates from the House of Lords decision in Wells v. Wells [1998] 3 All ER 481. This case fundamentally addressed the methodology for calculating damages for future financial losses in personal injury claims. Prior to this decision, the courts typically used an approach based on an assumed rate of return on investments, often referred to as the discount rate, to calculate the lump sum payments for future losses.

The plaintiffs in Wells v. Wells argued that the existing discount rate did not adequately reflect the realities of investment returns and inflation, resulting in under-compensation. The House of Lords ultimately agreed, ruling that the discount rate should be more closely aligned with the return on Index-Linked Government Securities (ILGS), which were deemed to provide a more secure and realistic reflection of future financial needs.

Significance of the Decision

The Wells v. Wells decision was pivotal for several reasons. It underscored the need for accuracy in compensating claimants for future losses, emphasising that the primary goal of damages is to put the claimant, as far as possible, in the position they would have been had the injury not occurred. The ruling also highlighted the importance of using realistic and secure financial instruments as benchmarks for calculating future losses, thereby ensuring claimants are not left under-compensated due to overly optimistic investment return assumptions.

Legal Principles of the Wells Order

Discount Rate

One of the key principles established by the Wells Order is the adjustment of the discount rate. The discount rate is used to determine the present value of a future sum of money, reflecting the principle that a sum received today is worth more than the same sum received in the future due to its potential earning capacity. Following Wells v. Wells, the discount rate was linked to the returns on ILGS, which were considered to offer a low-risk investment option that would preserve the value of the compensation over time.

Periodical Payment Orders (PPOs)

Another significant aspect of the Wells Order is the endorsement of Periodical Payment Orders (PPOs). PPOs provide an alternative to lump sum payments, allowing for regular, ongoing payments to the claimant over their lifetime. This method offers several advantages, including greater financial security for the claimant and a reduction in the risk of the compensation running out prematurely. PPOs are particularly beneficial in cases involving significant future care costs or loss of earnings, where the claimant’s financial needs may change over time.

Security and Certainty

The Wells Order emphasises the need for security and certainty in compensating claimants. By linking the discount rate to ILGS and promoting the use of PPOs, the order aims to provide a more reliable and stable basis for calculating future losses. This approach mitigates the risks associated with fluctuating investment returns and inflation, ensuring claimants receive compensation that accurately reflects their long-term financial needs.

Practical Application of the Wells Order

Calculating Damages

In practice, the Wells Order has significantly influenced the methodology for calculating damages in personal injury and medical negligence cases. Legal practitioners must consider the adjusted discount rate and the potential use of PPOs when advising clients and negotiating settlements. This involves a detailed assessment of the claimant’s future financial needs, including medical expenses, care costs, and loss of earnings, as well as an understanding of the relevant financial instruments and actuarial principles.

Role of Expert Witnesses

Expert witnesses play a crucial role in the application of the Wells Order. Actuaries, financial advisors, and medical experts are often called upon to provide evidence regarding the claimant’s future financial needs and the appropriate discount rate to be applied. Their testimony is essential in ensuring that the compensation awarded accurately reflects the claimant’s long-term financial requirements and adheres to the principles established by the Wells Order.

Challenges and Criticisms

Despite its benefits, the Wells Order has faced some challenges and criticisms. One of the primary concerns is the reliance on ILGS, which may not always be readily available or suitable for all claimants. Additionally, using a single discount rate may not adequately account for different claimants’ varying investment strategies and risk profiles. These issues highlight the need for ongoing review and adjustment of the discount rate and the potential for alternative methods of calculating future losses.

Recent Developments

Review of the Discount Rate

In recent years, there has been ongoing debate and review regarding the appropriate discount rate for personal injury claims. The UK government periodically reviews the discount rate to ensure it remains aligned with current economic conditions and investment returns. Notably, the Lord Chancellor has the authority to set the discount rate, taking into account expert advice and consultation with stakeholders.

In 2017, the discount rate was significantly reduced from 2.5% to -0.75%, reflecting the low-interest-rate environment and the need for a more cautious approach to investment returns. This adjustment had a substantial impact on the calculation of damages, resulting in higher compensation awards for claimants. However, it also sparked controversy and concern among insurers and defendants, who argued that the lower discount rate would lead to increased costs and premiums.

Legislative Changes

In response to these concerns, the UK government introduced the Civil Liability Act 2018, which includes provisions for reviewing and setting the discount rate. The Act established a new process for determining the discount rate, involving regular reviews and consultations with an expert panel. The goal is to ensure a more balanced and transparent approach to setting the discount rate, considering the interests of both claimants and defendants.

Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has also influenced the application of the Wells Order and the calculation of damages in personal injury claims. The economic uncertainty and market volatility caused by the pandemic have highlighted the importance of using secure and stable financial instruments as benchmarks for calculating future losses. Additionally, the pandemic has underscored the need for flexibility and adaptability in compensating claimants, particularly in long-term medical care and rehabilitation cases.


The Wells Order represents a significant milestone in personal injury law, providing a more accurate and reliable basis for calculating damages for future financial losses. By adjusting the discount rate and promoting the use of PPOs, the Wells Order aims to ensure that claimants receive compensation that accurately reflects their long-term financial needs and provides greater security and certainty.

Legal practitioners must be well-versed in the principles and practical application of the Wells Order to advise clients and negotiate settlements effectively. This involves a thorough understanding of the relevant financial instruments, actuarial principles, and the role of expert witnesses in assessing future financial needs.

Recent developments, including the review of the discount rate and legislative changes, highlight the Wells Order’s ongoing evolution and its impact on personal injury claims. As economic conditions and investment returns change, the legal community needs to stay informed and adapt to these developments to ensure fair and accurate compensation for claimants.

In conclusion, the Wells Order remains a cornerstone of personal injury law in the UK. It provides a framework for calculating damages that prioritises the long-term financial security and well-being of claimants. Its principles and application continue to shape the landscape of personal injury claims, underscoring the importance of accuracy, security, and adaptability in compensating those who have suffered injury or loss.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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