Full Overview Of Codicil

A codicil is a legal document that enables a person to modify or add to an existing will without the necessity of creating an entirely new will. In the field of estate planning, codicils offer a convenient and effective way to update a will to account for changing circumstances, new wishes, or corrections. It is essential to comprehend the purpose, usage, and legal requirements of codicils to ensure that estate planning remains accurate and current.

Purpose and Benefits of Codicils

Codicils serve various purposes and offer numerous benefits.


A codicil provides flexibility by allowing changes to be made to a will without the need to draft a new one. This is particularly useful for minor adjustments or updates, such as changing a beneficiary, altering an executor, or modifying a specific bequest.


Drafting a codicil is generally quicker and less cumbersome than creating a new will. It allows for efficient updates to a will, saving time and resources while ensuring that the will remains current and reflective of the testator’s wishes.


Codicils can help maintain clarity and accuracy in estate planning. By addressing specific changes directly, a codicil can prevent confusion or misinterpretation that might arise from informal changes or annotations made to the original will.

Common Uses of Codicils

Codicils can be used for a variety of purposes in estate planning, including:

Changing Beneficiaries

One of the most common uses of a codicil is to change the beneficiaries named in a will. This might include adding new beneficiaries, removing existing ones, or altering the shares or specific bequests allocated to each.

Example: “I revoke the bequest of £10,000 to my nephew, James, and instead bequeath this amount to my niece, Emily.”

Updating Executors

A codicil can be used to change the executor or executors of a will. This might be necessary if the original executor is no longer able or willing to serve, or if the testator wishes to appoint someone else.

Example: “I hereby appoint Sarah Johnson as the executor of my will, revoking the previous appointment of John Smith.”

Modifying Specific Bequests

Codicils are often used to make adjustments to specific bequests, whether this involves changing the item bequeathed, the amount of money, or the conditions attached to the bequest.

Example: “I amend the bequest of my car to my friend, Robert, to instead bequeath my car to my sister, Jane.”

Addressing Changes in Circumstances

Life events such as marriages, divorces, births, and deaths can significantly impact estate planning. Codicils allow for quick and efficient updates to a will to reflect these changes.

Example: “I bequeath £5,000 to my granddaughter, Sophie, who was born after the execution of my original will.”

To ensure that a codicil is legally valid and enforceable, several key requirements must be met:

Testamentary Capacity

The testator must have the legal capacity to make a codicil, meaning they must be of sound mind and understand the nature and implications of the changes being made.

Written Document

A codicil must be in writing, just like the original will. It should clearly reference the original will and specify the changes or additions being made.

Signatures and Witnesses

The codicil must be signed by the testator and witnessed by at least two individuals who are not beneficiaries under the will or the codicil. The witnessing requirements are the same as for the original will, ensuring that the codicil meets legal standards.

Clear Language

The language used in a codicil should be clear and unambiguous. It should explicitly state the changes being made to the original will, and any references to the original document should be precise.

Drafting and Executing a Code

The process of drafting and executing a codicil involves several important steps:

Reviewing the Original Will

Before drafting a codicil, it is essential to thoroughly review the original will to understand its contents and identify the specific changes or additions that need to be made.

Drafting the Codicil

The codicil should be drafted with clear and precise language, specifying the changes or additions to the original will. It should reference the original will by date and include any relevant details to avoid confusion.

Example: “This codicil, dated January 1, 2024, amends my last will and testament dated January 1, 2020.

Signing and Witnessing

The codicil must be signed by the testator in the presence of at least two witnesses, who must also sign the document. To avoid potential conflicts of interest, the witnesses should not be beneficiaries under the will or the codicil.

Storing the Codicil

The original codicil should be stored with the original will in a safe and accessible location. It is advisable to inform the executor and relevant parties of the existence and location of the codicil to ensure it is discovered and followed upon the testator’s death.

Potential Challenges and Considerations

While codicils offer a convenient way to update a will, there are potential challenges and considerations to keep in mind:

Risk of Confusion

Multiple codicils can create confusion and increase the risk of conflicting provisions. It is crucial to ensure that each codicil is clearly drafted and that any inconsistencies with the original will or previous codicils are addressed.

Impact on Estate Planning

Significant changes to a will, such as altering the overall distribution of assets or making substantial new bequests, might be better addressed through drafting a new will rather than using a codicil. This can help maintain clarity and coherence in the estate plan.

Legal Advice

Consulting with a legal professional when drafting a codicil is advisable to ensure that it meets all legal requirements and effectively reflects the testator’s wishes. Legal advice can also help navigate complex situations and prevent potential disputes.

Codicils and Modern Estate Planning

In modern estate planning, the use of codicils remains relevant and beneficial. However, advancements in digital technology and changes in legal practices have introduced new considerations:

Digital Wills and Codicils

As jurisdictions increasingly recognise digital wills, the question of digital codicils arises. The legal framework for digital wills and codicils varies, and it is important to understand the specific requirements and limitations in one’s jurisdiction.

Integration with Comprehensive Estate Plans

Codicils should be integrated into a comprehensive estate plan that includes other documents such as powers of attorney, healthcare directives, and trusts. Ensuring consistency and coherence across all estate planning documents is essential for a well-rounded plan.


Codicils are a valuable tool in estate planning. They provide a flexible, efficient, and clear method for updating a will. Whether changing beneficiaries, updating executors, or addressing new circumstances, codicils offer a practical solution for keeping a will current and reflective of one’s wishes. By understanding the legal requirements, drafting process, and potential challenges, individuals can effectively use codicils to enhance their estate planning. Consulting with legal professionals can provide essential guidance and ensure that codicils are properly executed and integrated into a comprehensive estate plan.

Codicil FAQ'S

A codicil is a legal document used to make minor changes or additions to an existing will without needing to rewrite the entire will. It must be signed and witnessed in the same way as the original will to be valid.

You should use a codicil for minor amendments to your will, such as changing executors, updating beneficiary details, or altering specific bequests. For substantial changes, it may be better to create a new will to avoid confusion.

To create a codicil, write down your changes or additions, reference the original will, and sign the document in the presence of two witnesses. The witnesses must also sign the codicil. It’s advisable to seek legal advice to ensure the codicil is valid and correctly executed.

Yes, a codicil can revoke specific parts of your will. It should clearly state which parts of the will are being revoked or replaced and provide the new provisions. The rest of the will remains unchanged unless specified otherwise in the codicil.

No, the witnesses to a codicil do not need to be the same as those who witnessed the original will. However, they must meet the same legal requirements, being over 18 and not beneficiaries or the spouse or civil partner of a beneficiary.

There is no legal limit to the number of codicils you can add to your will. However, having multiple codicils can create confusion. If you need to make numerous or substantial changes, it may be more practical to write a new will.

Yes, a codicil can be used to change the executor of your will. Clearly state in the codicil the name of the new executor and whether the original executor is being replaced or if the new executor is an additional appointment.

Keep your codicil with your original will in a safe place, such as a secure home safe, with your solicitor, or at a bank. Inform your executor and close family members where the documents are stored to ensure they can be easily located when needed.

Yes, a codicil can be contested on similar grounds as a will, such as a lack of mental capacity, undue influence, or improper execution. Ensuring the codicil is properly drafted, signed, and witnessed can help minimise the risk of it being contested.

If there is a conflict between the will and a codicil, the provisions in the codicil generally take precedence over those in the will, as the codicil is the more recent document. It’s important to clearly state any changes in the codicil to avoid ambiguity and potential disputes.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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Our team of professionals are based in Alderley Edge, Cheshire. We offer clear, specialist legal advice in all matters relating to Family Law, Wills, Trusts, Probate, Lasting Power of Attorney and Court of Protection.

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