Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence
Full Overview Of Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a grave and pervasive issue that affects individuals and families across all demographics, regardless of age, gender, socioeconomic status, or cultural background. It encompasses various forms of abuse, including physical, emotional, sexual, and financial, and often has long-lasting impacts on the victims and their families.

At DLS Solicitors, we are dedicated to providing a comprehensive understanding of domestic violence, its legal implications, available support systems, and practical steps for those affected. This overview aims to offer clarity and guidance to those experiencing or witnessing domestic violence, as well as to professionals and community members involved in support and prevention efforts.

What Is Domestic Violence?

Domestic violence refers to any incident of controlling, coercive, threatening, degrading, or violent behaviour, including sexual violence, in the context of an intimate relationship or family. It can occur between partners, ex-partners, or other family members, regardless of gender or sexual orientation. The primary forms of domestic violence include:

  1. Physical Abuse: This involves the use of physical force that results in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. Examples include hitting, slapping, pushing, choking, and using weapons.
  2. Emotional and Psychological Abuse: This form of abuse aims to undermine the victim’s self-esteem and mental health through tactics such as intimidation, humiliation, manipulation, isolation, and verbal abuse.
  3. Sexual Abuse: Any non-consensual sexual activity or behaviour that is forced upon the victim, including rape, sexual assault, and sexual coercion.
  4. Financial Abuse: This involves controlling a victim’s financial resources, restricting access to money, withholding financial support, and sabotaging employment opportunities.
  5. Coercive Control: A pattern of behaviour designed to exert power and control over the victim through threats, humiliation, and intimidation, often isolating the victim from friends and family.

Prevalence and Impact

Domestic violence is alarmingly prevalent. According to the Office for National Statistics, an estimated 2.3 million adults aged 16 to 74 experienced domestic abuse in the year ending March 2020 in England and Wales. The impact of domestic violence extends beyond immediate physical injuries, affecting mental health, economic stability, and overall well-being. Long-term consequences can include chronic health issues, psychological trauma, and difficulties in forming and maintaining healthy relationships.

Legal Framework and Protections


The UK has a robust legal framework designed to protect victims of domestic violence and hold perpetrators accountable. Key legislation includes:

  1. The Domestic Abuse Act 2021: This landmark legislation provides a comprehensive definition of domestic abuse, emphasising the importance of recognising non-physical forms of abuse such as coercive control. It introduces measures to protect victims, such as Domestic Abuse Protection Notices (DAPNs) and Domestic Abuse Protection Orders (DAPOs).
  2. The Family Law Act 1996: This Act allows victims to apply for non-molestation orders and occupation orders to protect themselves from further abuse. Non-molestation orders prohibit the abuser from contacting or harassing the victim, while occupation orders regulate who can live in the family home.
  3. The Crime and Security Act 2010 introduced Domestic Violence Protection Notices (DVPNs) and Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs), which provide immediate protection by removing the perpetrator from the home and prohibiting contact with the victim for a specified period.
  4. The Serious Crime Act 2015: This Act criminalised controlling or coercive behaviour in an intimate or family relationship, recognising the severe impact of such behaviour on victims.

Protective Orders

Victims of domestic violence can seek various protective orders to ensure their safety and well-being:

  1. Non-Molestation Orders: These orders prohibit the abuser from using or threatening violence, harassing, or intimidating the victim. Breaching a non-molestation order is a criminal offence.
  2. Occupation Orders: These orders determine who can live in the family home and can exclude the abuser from the property. They provide temporary relief, allowing the victim to remain in their home without the threat of abuse.
  3. Domestic Violence Protection Notices (DVPNs) and Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs): DVPNs provide immediate protection by removing the abuser from the home for up to 48 hours. A DVPO can then be applied for, extending the protection for up to 28 days.

Criminal Prosecutions

Domestic violence is a criminal offence, and perpetrators can be prosecuted under various charges, including assault, harassment, stalking, rape, and coercive control. Victims are encouraged to report incidents to the police, who can initiate criminal proceedings and provide support throughout the process.

Support Systems and Resources

Immediate Help and Safety Planning

For individuals experiencing domestic violence, ensuring immediate safety is paramount. Steps to consider include:

  1. Contacting the Police: In emergencies, victims should call 999 for immediate assistance. The police can intervene, remove the abuser, and provide protection.
  2. Safety Planning: Developing a safety plan involves identifying safe places to go, keeping essential items ready, and establishing a support network of trusted friends or family members.
  3. Helplines and Support Services: Numerous organisations provide 24/7 helplines, offering confidential support and advice. Notable helplines include the National Domestic Abuse Helpline (0808 2000 247) and Men’s Advice Line (0808 801 0327).

Refuge and Housing Support

Victims of domestic violence often need safe housing options to escape their abusers. Resources include:

  1. Refuges: These safe houses provide temporary accommodation and support for victims and their children. Refuges offer a secure environment where victims can receive counselling, legal advice, and practical assistance.
  2. Housing Assistance: Local authorities have a duty to provide housing assistance to victims of domestic violence. This can include emergency accommodation, temporary housing, and support in finding long-term housing solutions.

Legal Support and Advice

Accessing legal support is crucial for victims seeking protection and justice. Services include:

  1. Solicitors: Experienced family law solicitors can advise on protective orders, divorce, child custody, and financial settlements. Legal aid may be available for those who cannot afford legal representation.
  2. Domestic Abuse Courts: These specialised courts are designed to handle domestic violence cases efficiently, with trained professionals who understand the complexities of abuse and can provide appropriate support.

Counselling and Emotional Support

The emotional impact of domestic violence can be profound. Victims may benefit from:

  1. Counselling Services: Professional counsellors and therapists can help victims process their experiences, build resilience, and develop coping strategies.
  2. Support Groups: Joining support groups allows victims to connect with others who have had similar experiences, share their stories, and receive mutual support and encouragement.

Prevention and Education

Raising Awareness

Preventing domestic violence requires a concerted effort to raise awareness and challenge societal attitudes. Strategies include:

  1. Public Campaigns: National and local campaigns can educate the public about the signs of domestic violence, available resources, and the importance of reporting abuse.
  2. Media and Social Media: Various media platforms can reach a broad audience by highlighting stories of survivors, promoting helplines, and sharing information about support services.

Education and Training

Education and training are vital to equip individuals and professionals with the knowledge and skills to address domestic violence:

  1. Schools and Universities: Integrating education on healthy relationships, consent, and recognising abuse into the curriculum can help young people understand and prevent domestic violence.
  2. Professional Training: Providing training for healthcare professionals, educators, social workers, and law enforcement ensures they can identify signs of abuse, offer appropriate support, and refer victims to specialised services.

Community Involvement

Community involvement is essential in creating a supportive environment that prevents domestic violence:

  1. Community Groups: Local organisations, faith groups, and community centres can play a pivotal role in offering support, raising awareness, and providing safe spaces for victims.
  2. Bystander Intervention: Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and support victims can help prevent abuse and demonstrate community solidarity against domestic violence.

Legal and Policy Considerations

Legislative Reforms

Continuous legislative reforms are necessary to address emerging issues and improve victim protections. Advocating for changes in laws and policies can ensure that legal frameworks remain robust and effective.

Government Initiatives

Government initiatives and funding are crucial for supporting domestic violence services and prevention programmes. This includes:

  1. Funding for Support Services: Ensuring that refuges, helplines, counselling services, and legal aid are adequately funded to meet the needs of victims.
  2. Research and Data Collection: Conducting research and collecting data on domestic violence can inform policy decisions, identify service gaps, and highlight improvement areas.

Collaborative Approaches

Addressing domestic violence requires a collaborative approach involving various stakeholders:

  1. Multi-Agency Partnerships: Collaboration between police, healthcare providers, social services, housing authorities, and non-profit organisations ensures a coordinated response to domestic violence.
  2. Integrated Services: Developing integrated services that offer comprehensive support, including legal advice, housing assistance, counselling, and financial support, can provide holistic care for victims.

Practical Steps for Professionals

Identifying Signs of Domestic Violence

Professionals working in various fields should be vigilant in identifying signs of domestic violence, which may include:

  1. Physical Injuries: Unexplained bruises, cuts, or injuries that the victim attempts to conceal or offers implausible explanations for.
  2. Behavioural Changes: Sudden changes in behaviour, such as withdrawal, anxiety, depression, or increased substance use.
  3. Control and Isolation: Signs that the victim is being controlled, such as restricted access to money, communication, or social interactions.

Offering Support

When offering support to victims, professionals should:

  1. Listen and Believe: Provide a non-judgmental, empathetic ear and believe the victim’s account of their experiences.
  2. Ensure Safety: Prioritise the victim’s safety by helping them develop a safety plan and providing information about emergency resources.
  3. Respect Confidentiality: Maintain confidentiality and only share information with other professionals when necessary and with the victim’s consent.

Referring to Specialist Services

Professionals should be aware of specialist services and refer victims to appropriate support, including:

  1. Domestic Violence Helplines: Provide victims with contact information for helplines that offer 24/7 support.
  2. Legal Advice: Refer victims to solicitors specialising in family law and domestic violence.
  3. Counselling and Support Groups: Recommend counselling services and support groups to help victims cope with their experiences.


Domestic violence is a complex and pervasive issue that requires a comprehensive and coordinated response from individuals, communities, professionals, and policymakers. By understanding the various forms of abuse, the legal protections available, and the support systems in place, we can work towards preventing domestic violence and supporting those affected.

At DLS Solicitors, we are committed to providing expert legal advice and compassionate support to victims of domestic violence, ensuring their safety and well-being. If you or someone you know is experiencing domestic violence, please do not hesitate to contact us. Our experienced team is here to help you navigate the legal process and access the support you need to rebuild your life.

Domestic Violence FAQ'S

Domestic violence includes any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening, degrading, or violent behaviour, including sexual violence, between those aged 16 or over who are or have been intimate partners or family members. This can encompass physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial abuse.

If you are in immediate danger, call 999. For non-emergency situations, seek support from local domestic violence services, contact the National Domestic Abuse Helpline at 0808 2000 247, or speak with a trusted friend or family member. It’s also advisable to seek legal advice regarding protection orders and other legal remedies.

Victims can apply for several types of orders, including non-molestation orders, occupation orders, domestic violence protection notices (DVPNs), and domestic violence protection orders (DVPOs). These orders can restrict the abuser’s behaviour and remove them from the victim’s home.

To apply for a non-molestation order, you need to complete the FL401 form and submit it to the Family Court. You should provide evidence of the abuse and explain why the order is necessary for your protection. Legal advice can be beneficial in this process.

An Occupation Order regulates who can live in the family home and can order the abuser to leave the property. It can also specify who is allowed to enter the surrounding area. This order is designed to protect victims of domestic violence and can last for a specified period or until further court order.

Breaching a non-molestation order is a criminal offence. The police can arrest the abuser, and they may face prosecution, leading to potential penalties such as fines, imprisonment, or both.

Yes, legal aid is available for victims of domestic violence to help cover the costs of legal advice and representation in court. Eligibility depends on your financial circumstances and the merits of your case. Evidence of domestic violence will be required to qualify.

Coercive control is a pattern of behaviour that seeks to take away the victim’s liberty or freedom and strip away their sense of self. It includes isolating them from support, exploiting them, depriving them of independence, and regulating their everyday behaviour. Coercive control is a criminal offence under the Serious Crime Act 2015.

Generally, victims are encouraged to testify against their abusers to help secure a conviction. However, the legal system recognises the challenges and dangers of this, and there are protections and support available to victims who are witnesses. In some cases, the prosecution may proceed without the victim’s testimony if there is sufficient evidence.

There are numerous support services available, including:

  • The National Domestic Abuse Helpline (0808 2000 247)
  • Women’s Aid
  • Refuge
  • Victim Support
  • Local domestic abuse services and shelters These organisations offer counselling, legal advice, emergency housing, and support in navigating the legal system.

This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 11th July 2024.

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