Party Wall

Party Wall
Party Wall
Full Overview Of Party Wall

The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 is a critical piece of legislation in England and Wales that governs the rights and responsibilities of property owners when undertaking building work near or on a shared wall or boundary. Understanding the intricacies of party wall matters is essential for homeowners, developers, and neighbours to ensure the smooth execution of construction projects and to avoid disputes.

At DLS Solicitors, we provide this comprehensive overview of party walls, covering the legal framework, processes, and practical considerations for all parties involved.

What is a Party Wall?

A party wall is a wall that stands on the land of two or more owners and forms part of a building, or a wall that stands on one owner’s land but is used by two or more owners to separate their buildings. The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 also includes party structures such as floors between flats or ceilings and garden walls built over a boundary line.

Types of Party Walls

  • Party Wall: A wall shared by two buildings, standing astride the boundary line.
  • Party Fence Wall: A wall that stands astride the boundary line but is not part of a building, such as a garden wall (excluding timber fences).
  • Party Structure: A floor or wall partitioning flats or other divisions within a building.

The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 provides a framework for preventing and resolving disputes in relation to party walls, boundary walls, and excavations near neighbouring buildings. It applies to most building work that affects a party wall, party structure, or party fence wall in England and Wales.

Key Objectives of the Act

  1. Preventing Disputes: Establishes a clear process for notifying neighbours and resolving disagreements.
  2. Protecting Rights: Ensures that both building owners and adjoining owners’ rights are protected during construction work.
  3. Facilitating Construction: Provides a legal pathway to carry out necessary building works without undue hindrance.

Key Provisions of the Party Wall etc. Act 1996


Before commencing any work covered by the Act, the building owner must serve a party wall notice to the adjoining owner(s). The notice should be served at least two months before the intended start date for work on the party wall or party structure, and one month for excavation work.

Types of Notices

  1. Party Structure Notice: For work directly affecting a party wall or structure, such as cutting into the wall or increasing its height.
  2. Notice of Adjacent Excavation: For excavations within three or six metres of a neighbouring building, depending on the depth of the excavation.
  3. Line of Junction Notice: For construction of a new wall along the boundary line between two properties.

Responses to Notices

The adjoining owner has 14 days to respond to the notice. They can:

  1. Consent: Agree to the proposed work, allowing it to proceed.
  2. Dissent: Disagree with the proposed work, triggering the need for a party wall agreement (award).
  3. Do Nothing: If there is no response, this is treated as a dissent, and a party wall surveyor must be appointed.

Party Wall Agreement (Award)

If the adjoining owner dissents or fails to respond, a party wall agreement, also known as an award, is required. This involves the appointment of a party wall surveyor to prepare the award, which details the work to be carried out, how and when it will be done, and any additional protections required.

Appointment of Surveyors

  • Agreed Surveyor: Both parties can agree on a single surveyor.
  • Separate Surveyors: Each party appoints their own surveyor, and the two surveyors then appoint a third surveyor if necessary.

Content of the Award

The award will typically include:

  • A description of the proposed work.
  • A schedule of condition of the adjoining property.
  • Timeframes for the work.
  • Access arrangements for the surveyor(s) and contractors.
  • Procedures for resolving disputes.

Practical Considerations for Property Owners

Engaging Professionals

Given the complexities involved, it is advisable to engage professionals such as party wall surveyors and solicitors to navigate the process effectively. Professional advice ensures compliance with the Act and minimises the risk of disputes.

Planning and Preparation

  1. Early Communication: Engage with your neighbours early in the planning process to discuss your plans and address any concerns.
  2. Detailed Plans: Provide detailed architectural and structural plans to your surveyor and neighbours.
  3. Clear Documentation: Maintain clear records of all communications, notices, and agreements.

Handling Disputes

Disputes can arise despite best efforts. Effective dispute resolution strategies include:

  1. Negotiation: Attempt to resolve issues through direct negotiation with the adjoining owner.
  2. Mediation: Engage a mediator to facilitate discussions and help reach an agreement.
  3. Third Surveyor: If surveyors are appointed, use the third surveyor to resolve any disagreements between the appointed surveyors.

Case Studies

Loft Conversion

A homeowner plans a loft conversion, which involves raising the party wall with the adjoining property. The homeowner serves a party structure notice to the neighbour, who dissents. Both parties appoint surveyors, who agree on an award that includes provisions for additional structural support and access for construction workers. The work proceeds smoothly with minimal disruption to both properties.

Rear Extension

A homeowner plans to build a rear extension involving excavation work near the boundary. The homeowner serves a notice of adjacent excavation to the neighbour, who consents after reviewing the plans. No award is needed, and the work proceeds without issues, thanks to clear communication and detailed planning.

Garden Wall Dispute

Two neighbours disagree over constructing a new garden wall on the boundary line. The building owner serves a line of junction notice, and the adjoining owner dissents. Each appoints a surveyor, and the surveyors prepare an award that specifies the wall’s exact location, height, and construction details, resolving the dispute amicably.

Benefits of Compliance with the Party Wall etc. Act 1996

For Building Owners

  1. Legal Protection: Compliance with the Act provides legal protection and reduces the risk of disputes and potential litigation.
  2. Clear Framework: The Act provides a clear framework for carrying out building work, ensuring all parties understand their rights and responsibilities.
  3. Neighbour Relations: Early and transparent communication fosters better relationships with neighbours, reducing the likelihood of conflicts.

For Adjoining Owners

  1. Protection of Property: The Act ensures that adjoining properties are protected during construction work, with provisions for inspections and condition surveys.
  2. Dispute Resolution: The structured dispute resolution process helps resolve issues efficiently and fairly.
  3. Compensation: The Act provides mechanisms for compensation if the adjoining property is damaged during the work.

Potential Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them

Ignoring the Act

Failing to comply with the Party Wall etc. Act 1996 can result in legal disputes, project delays, and additional costs. To avoid these issues:

  1. Understand the Requirements: Familiarise yourself with the Act’s requirements and ensure you comply with all necessary steps.
  2. Serve Proper Notices: Always serve the correct notices and adhere to the required timelines.
  3. Seek Professional Advice: Engage a party wall surveyor or solicitor to guide you through the process.

Poor Communication

Lack of communication with neighbours can lead to misunderstandings and disputes. To improve communication:

  1. Early Engagement: Discuss your plans with neighbours before serving formal notices.
  2. Clear Explanations: Provide clear explanations and detailed plans to help neighbours understand the proposed work.
  3. Regular Updates: Keep neighbours informed of progress and any changes to the project.

Inadequate Documentation

Failing to maintain clear documentation can complicate dispute resolution. To ensure thorough documentation:

  1. Keep Records: Maintain records of all notices, responses, agreements, and communications.
  2. Photographic Evidence: Take photographs of the existing condition of adjoining properties before starting work.
  3. Formal Agreements: Ensure all agreements and awards are documented in writing and signed by all parties.


The Party Wall etc. Act 1996 is a vital piece of legislation that provides a structured framework for managing and resolving disputes related to party walls, boundary walls, and adjacent excavations. By ensuring compliance with the Act, building owners and adjoining owners can protect their properties, maintain good neighbourly relations, and avoid costly disputes.

At DLS Solicitors, we understand the complexities of party wall matters and are committed to providing expert guidance and support. Whether planning a construction project or responding to a neighbour’s notice, our experienced team is here to assist you in navigating the legal requirements and ensuring a successful outcome.

By engaging professionals, maintaining clear communication, and adhering to best practices, property owners can confidently undertake structural alterations and building work while respecting the rights and interests of their neighbours. Understanding the fundamentals of party wall matters is essential for making informed decisions and achieving project goals without unnecessary conflict or delay.


This site contains general legal information but does not constitute professional legal advice for your particular situation. Persuing this glossary does not create an attorney-client or legal adviser relationship. If you have specific questions, please consult a qualified attorney licensed in your jurisdiction.

This glossary post was last updated: 10th July 2024.

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